Apparent and True Digestibility in Clarias gariepinus, Burchell, 1822 FED Soyabean Meal Based Diets Supplemented with Protease

Jacob Oyeleye Oyedokun *

Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture, Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba-Akoko, Nigeria.

Olugbenga Adeniran Ogunwole

b Department of Animal Science, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.

Ibidun Comfort Adene

Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture, Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba-Akoko, Nigeria.

Ademuyiwa Hafiz Oladele

Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture, Federal University, Dutsin-Ma, Nigeria.

Yewande Sunday

Department of Aquaculture and Fisheries Management, Ibadan, Nigeria.

Kenneth Obosi

Department of Aquaculture and Fisheries Management, Ibadan, Nigeria.

Olaolu Olalekan Fawole

Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture, Ladoke Adetola University of Technology,Ogbomoso, Nigeria.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

Soyabean meal (SBM) could be a suitable replacement for the expensive fishmeal but for its low digestibility in fish. However, protease supplementation could improve digestibility of SBM based diets. Therefore, apparent and true digestibility in Clarias gariepinus fed SBM based diets supplemented with protease were investigated. Six diets containing varied inclusion levels of protease (ppm) in solvent extracted soybean-based diets (SESBD) were formulated; Control (without protease), SS100 (100), SS200 (200), SS300 (300), SS400 (400), SS500 (500). The Clarias gariepinus (n=720) weighing 12.00±0.10g were fed to satiation with the diets for 12 weeks. Each treatment was in triplicate. Protease supplementation significantly (P<0.05) influenced the weight gain of C. gariepinus with the higher value in fish fed SS400 (44.63±3.13) and least value in control diet (32.03±0.65).  FCR had a significantly (P<0.05) least value in C. gariepinus fed SS400 (1.62±0.18) but similar (P>0.05) to C. gariepinus diet SS300 (1.88±0.11). Supplemental protease in soyabean-based diet improved (P<0.05) apparent protein digestibility of C. gariepinus on diet SS400 (87.38±1.10) but similar (P>0.05) to C. gariepinus on diet SS200 (87.29±0.97). Also, true lysine digestibility was enhanced with protease supplementation in soybean-based diet with the higher value in diet SS200 (95.90±0.07). Optimal FCR occurred SESBD of 350ppm dietary inclusion (R2= 0.8147) of protease.  The findings suggest that, protease supplementation in solvent extracted soyabean based diet could improve growth performance and amino acid digestibility in C. gariepinus at 350ppm inclusion level.

Keywords: Fish, enzymes, plant proteins, growth performance, digestibility


How to Cite

Oyedokun, J. O., Ogunwole, O. A., Adene, I. C., Oladele, A. H., Sunday, Y., Obosi, K., & Fawole, O. O. (2024). Apparent and True Digestibility in Clarias gariepinus, Burchell, 1822 FED Soyabean Meal Based Diets Supplemented with Protease. Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry, 10(2), 61–73. https://doi.org/10.9734/ajraf/2024/v10i2286

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Thu Nguyen Van, Nguyen Thi, Kim Dong. A study of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) as a feed resource for feeding rabbits. International Conference on Livestock, Climate Change and the Environment, AnGiang University, Vietnam. 2009;16-18.

Nagaraju RK, Nielsen PH. Environmental advantages of phytase over inorganic phosphate in poultry feed. Poultry Punch. 2011;27-57.

Oxenboll KM, Pontoppidan K, Fru-Nji F. Use of a protease in poultry feed offers promising environmental benefits. International Journal of Poultry Science. 2011;10:842-848.

DOI:10.3923/ijps.2011.842.848

Scott TA, Kampen R, Silversides FG. The effect of adding phosphorus, phytase enzyme and calcium on the performance of layers fed corn-based diets. Poultry Science. 2001;80:183-190.

Cowieson AJ. Acamovic T. Bedford MR. Supplementation of diets containing pea meal with exogenous enzymes: Effects on weight gain, feed conversion, nutrient digestibility and gross morphology of the gastrointestinal tract of growing broiler chicks. British Poultry Science. 2003; 44:427-437.

Cowieson AJ, Adeola O. Carbohydrases, protease, and phytase have an additive beneficial effect in nutritionally marginal diets for broiler chicks. Poultry Science. 2005;84:1860–1867.

Iwaniuk NA. Christopher PH, Hall MI, Douglas RW. Relative wulst volume in correlated with orbit orientation and binocular visual field in bird. Journal of Comparative Physiology. 2008;194(3): 268-282.

Romero LF, Parsons CM, Utterback PL, Plumstead PW, Ravindran V. Comparative effects of dietary carbohydrases without or with protease on the ileal digestibility of energy and amino acids and AMEn in young broilers. Animal Feed Science and Technology. 2013;181:35-44.

Ghazi S, Rooke JA, Galbraith H, Bedford MD. The potential for the improvement of the nutritive value of soya-bean meal by different proteases in broiler chicks and broiler cockerels. British Poultry Science. 2002;43:70–77.

Faturoti EO, Balogun AM, Ugwu LLC. Nutrient utilization and growth responses of Clarias gariepinusfed different dietary protein levels. Nigerian Journal of Applied Fish and Hydrobiology. 1986;1:41-45.

AOAC. Official methods of analysis of the association of analytical chemists international, 18th ed. Gathersburg, MD U.S.A Official methods, 2005;08.

Falayi BA. Feed formulation, manufacture and quality appraisal for fish and livestock. A guide in nutrition technology Book Series 4.First edition 2009, Published by B.A. Falayi, National Institute for Freshwater Fisheries Research (NIFFR), New-Bussa, 2009; ISBN 978-978-48686-9-3.

Adeoye AA, Jaramillo-Torres A, Fox SW, Merrifield DL, Davies SJ. Supplementation of formulated diets for tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) with selected exogenous enzymes: Overall performance and effects on intestinal histology and microbiota. Animal Feed Science and Technology. 2016;215;133-143.

Dias J, Rema P, Nunes C, Vogel K, Verlhac V. Efficacy of dietary protease supplementation on growth performance and nutrient digestibility and utilization of juvenile Nile tilapia fed low fishmeal diets with variable crude protein level, FeedInfo News; 2014.

Naela M. Ragaa, Nermeen M. Abu Elala, Azza M. Kamal and NF. Kamel. Effect of a serine-protease on performance parameters and protein digestibility of cultured Oreochromis niloticus fed diets with different protein levels. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition. 2017;16:148-154.

Odetallah NH, Wang JJ, Garlich JD. Versazyme supplementation of broiler diets improves market growth performance. Poultry Science. 2005;84: 858-864.

Wang K, Zhou Y. J, Liu H, Cheng K, Mao J, Wang F, Liu W, Ye M, Zhao Z. K, and Zou H. Proteomic analysis of protein methylation in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Journal of Proteomics. 2015;114:226-33.

Angel R, Humphrey B, Saylor W. Age changes in gastrointestinal pH in broilers. 2010 Annual Meeting Abstracts. Poultry Science. 2010;89(1):650.

Li XQ, Chai XQ, Liu DY, Chowdhury MAK, Leng XJ. Effects of temperature and feed processing on protease activity and dietary protease on growths of white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, and tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus × O. aureus. Aquaculture Nutrition. 2016;22(6):1283-1292

Available:http://dx.doi.org/10.111/anu.12330.

Singh Sultan, Kushwaha BP, NagSK, Mishra AK, Bhattacharya S, Gupta PK, Singh A. In vitro methane emission from Indian dry roughages in relation to chemical composition. Current Science. 2011;101(1):57-65.

Yin YL, Baidoo SK, Schulze H, Simmins PH. Effects of supplementing diets containing hulless barley varieties having different levels of non-starch polysaccharides with β-glucanase and xylanase on the physiological status of the gastrointestinal tract and nutrient digestibility of weaned pigs. Livestock Production Science. 2001;71:97–107.

Carter C.G., Houlihan D. F., Buchanan B. and Mitchell A. I. Growth and feedutilisation efficiencies of seawater Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., fed a diet containing supplementary enzymes. Aquaculture Research, 1994; 25: 37-46.

Drew MD, Racz VJ, Gauthier R, Thiessen DL. Effect of adding protease to coextruded flax: pea or canola: pea products on nutrient digestibility and growth performance of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Animal Feed Science and Technology. 2005;119:117-128.

Zhong GF, Zhou HQ. The effects of xylanase and multi-enzyme PS on the production performance, digestibility and the nutrient ingredients of muscles of Oreochromis niloticus. Journal of Zhejiang Ocean University (Natural Science). 2005;24:324-329.

Prabjeet Singh, Sajid Maqsood, Munir Hassan Samoon, Vikas Phulia, Mohd Danish and Ramesh Singh Chalal. Exogenous supplementation of papain as growth promoter in diet of fingerlings of Cyprinus carpio. International Aquatic Resources. 2011;3:1-9.

Freitas DM, Vieira SL, Angel CR, Favero A, Maiork A. Performance and nutrient utilisation of broilers fed diets supplemented with a novel monocomponent protease. The Journal of Applied Poultry Research. 2011;20:322-334.

Liu W, Wu JP, Li Z, Duan ZY, Wen H. Effects of dietary coated protease on growth performance, feed utilization, nutrient apparent digestibility, intestinal and hepatopancreas structure in juvenile Gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio). Aquaculture Nutrition. 2016;24:47–55.

Available:https://doi.org/10.1111/anu.12531

Dalolio, Felipe Santos Moreira, Joerley, Vaz, Diego Pereira, Albino, Luiz Fernando Teixeira, Valadares, Leonora Ribeiro, Pires, Aldrin Vieira and Pinheiro, Sandra Regina Freitas. Exogenous enzymes in diets for broilers. RevistaBrasileira de Saúde e Produção Animal. 2016; 17(2):149-161.

Angel CR, Saylor W, Viera SL, Ward N. Effects of a mono component protease on performance and protein utilization in seven to twenty-two-day-old broiler chickens. Poultry science (Inpress); 2011.

Ravindran V, Abdollahi M, Bootwalla S. Nutrient analysis, apparent metabolisable energy and ileal amino acid digestibility of full fat soyabean for broilers. Animal Feed Science and Technology. 2014;197(8): 233-240.

Vieira SL, Angel CR, Miranda DJA, Favero A, Cruz RFA, Sorbara JOB. Effects of a monocomponent protease on performance and protein utilization in 1- to 26-day-of-age turkey poultry. Journal Applied Poultry Research, 2013;22:680-688.

Rostagno HS, Albino LFT, Donzele JL, Gomes PC, Oliveira RF, Lopes DC, Ferreira AS, Barreto SLT. Brazilian tables for poultry and swine: Composition of feedstuffs and nutritional requirements. Viçosa, UFV. 2011;251.

Bertechini RL, Carvalho JCC, Mesquita FR, Castro SF, Meneghetti C, Sorbara JOB. Use of a protease to enhance the utilization of soyabean meal amino acids by broilers. Poultry Science. 2009;88(1): 69-78.