Vegetative Propagation of Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Del. by Air Layering under Sahelian Climate in Niger

Main Article Content

Maman Kamal Abdou Habou
Habou Rabiou
Laouali Abdou
Boubacar Moussa Mamoudou
Ismaël Bio Yandou`
Ali Mahamane


Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Del. is a fruit species from the Sahelian and Sudano-sahelian zones, highly appreciated by the population. It provides a source of income for the rural population and its various parts are used for human and animal food, handicrafts and traditional medicine. However, the lack of data on propagation techniques of the species is a significant limitation to its domestication. This study aims to evaluate the vegetative propagation capacity of Balanites aegyptiaca by air layering. The trials were conducted in the Arboretum of Sahara Sahel Foods in Zinder, Niger. The layers were placed on orthotropic branches. The variables selected were the diameter class (1-2 cm, 2-3 cm and 3-4 cm) and the substrates (sand+manure, sand+sawdust and sand). A total of 116 layers were made. The results show that 93.1% of the layers have taken root two months after realization. The diameter classes and the three substrates have no significant influence on the number of roots. In contrast, root length varied significantly with substrates (P = 0.000) and branch diameter classes (P = 0.031). As for the diameter of the newly formed roots, a significant difference was observed between the diameter classes and the substrates have no significant effect on this parameter. One month after weaning of layers, an average survival rate of 68.5% was obtained. The seedlings of the diameter class 2-3 cm have the highest survival rate (83.1%). These results suggest that it is possible to produce Balanites aegyptiaca plants by air layering, and could contribute to the development of strategies adapted to its domestication.

Balanites aegyptiaca, air layering, seedling production, domestication, Sahel, Niger

Article Details

How to Cite
Habou, M. K. A., Rabiou, H., Abdou, L., Mamoudou, B. M., Yandou`I. B., & Mahamane, A. (2019). Vegetative Propagation of Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Del. by Air Layering under Sahelian Climate in Niger. Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry, 3(4), 1-10.
Original Research Article


Ganaba S, Ouadba JM, Bognounou O. Plants used to build homes in the Sahel. Bo. For. Trop. 2004;282(4):11-17.

Dan Guimbo I, Baragé M, Douma S. Preliminary studies on the food use of wild plants in the peripheral areas of Niger's W Park. Int. J. Biol. Chem. Sci. 2012;6(6): 4007-4017.

Yaméogo G, Yélémou B, Boussim IJ, Traoré D. Management of the agroforestry park of the Vipalogo terroir (Burkina Faso): contribution of the ligneous to the satisfaction of the needs of the populations. Int. J. Biol. Chem. Sci. 2013; 7(3),1087-1105.

Agùndez D, Lawali S, Mahamane A, Alĭa R, Soliňo M. Consumer preferences for Baobab products and implication for conservation and improvement policies of forest food resources in Niger (West Africa). Economic Botany. 2018;1-15.

Douma S, Chaïbou R, Mahamane A, N’da DH, Saadou M. Present state of degradation in four fruit tree species of Niger Sahel Soudan zone: Tamou wildlife Reserve. Rev. Ivoir. Sci. Tech. 2010;16, 191-210.

Moupela C. Ecology, population dynamics and economic interests of African walnut (Coula edulis Baill.) in Gabon. Ph.D thesis in Agricultural Sciences and Biological Engineering, University of Liège, Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech. 2013;142.

Ouédraogo A. Diversity and dynamics of woody vegetation in eastern Burkina Faso. PhD thesis, University of Ouagadougou. 2006;196.

Bellefontaine R, Ferradous A, Alifriqui M, Monteuuis O. Vegetative propagation of the argan tree, Argania spinosa in Morocco: The John Goelet Project. Bo. For. Trop. 2010;304(2):47-59.

Arbonnier M. Trees, shrubs and lianas in dry areas of West Africa. CIRAD -MNHN - UICN, Montpellier (France). 2000;541.

Abdourhamane H, Morou B, Larwanou M, Mahamane A, Saadou M, Bellefontaine R. Uses and preferences of woody species in two protected forests of Dan Kada Dodo and Dan Gado in Niger. Journal of Horticulture and Forestry. 2015;7(6):149-159.

Agùndez D, Douma S, Madrigal J, Gomez-Ramos A, Vinceti B, Alĭa R, et al. Conservation of food tree species in Niger :Towards a participatory approach in rural communities. Forest Systems. 2016;25(3): e080.

Meunier Q, Bellefontaine R, Monteuuis O. Vegetative propagation of medicinal trees and shrubs to the benefit of rural communities in Uganda. Bo. For. Trop. 2008;295(2):71-82.

Tchoundjeu Z, Ngo Mpeck ML, Asaah E, Amougou A. The role of vegetative propagation in the domestication of Pausinystalia johimbe (K. Schum), a highly threatened medicinal species of West and Central Africa. Forest Ecology and Management. 2004;188:175-183.

Yélémou B, Yaméogo G, Rasolodimby JM, Hien V. Sexual germination and dynamic plants growth of Piliostigma reticulatum (D.C.) Hochst, an agroforestry tree species in Burkina Faso. Séch. 2007;18(3):185-192.

Rabiou H, Diouf A, Bationo AB, Mahamane A, Segla KN, Adjonou K, et al. Population structure of natural stand and spatial distribution of Pterocarpus erinaceus Poir seedlings. In the Tiogo forest in the Sudanian zone of Burkina Faso. Int. J. Biol. Chem. Sci. 2015;9(1):69-81.

Moupela C, Doucet JL, Daïnou K, Meunier Q, Vermeulen C. Propagation trials with coula edulis baill. using seeds and air layering; prospects for domestication. Bo. For. Trop. 2013;318(4):3-13.

Meunier Q, Bellefontaine R, Boffa JM, Bitahwa N. Low-cost vegetative propagation of trees and shrubs. Technical Handbook for Uganda Rural Communities; C.I.R.AD. 2006;66.

Abdou L, Karim S, Rabiou H, Mahamane A. Vegetative propagation trial of Prosopis africana (Guill. et Perr.) Taub. by air layering under Sudano-sahelian climate in the South-central Niger. Journal of botany; 2015;6.
[ID 286582]

Dan Guimbo I, Laminou MO, Rabiou H, Yagi BH, Ambouta KJM. Vegetative propagation by root and stem cuttings of Leptadenia hastata (Pers.) Decne., an edible Sahelian liana in Niger. Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife & Environment. 2017;9(2):1-7.

Saadou M. Vegetation of drained Nigerian environments east of the Niger River. PhD thesis in Natural Sciences, University of Niamey. 1990;395.

Tchiagam NJP, Ndzié JP, Bellefontaine R, Mapongmetsem PM. Vegetative propagation of Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Del., Diospyros mespiliformis Hochst. ex. A. Rich and Sclerocarya birrea (A. Rich.) Hochst. in northern of Cameroon. Fruits. 2011;66(5):327–341.

Elomo C, Nguénayé B, Tchoundjeu Z, Assah E, Tsobeng A, Avana LM, et al. Vegetative propagation of Dacryodes edulis (G. Don) HJ Lam by air layering. Afrika focus. 27, Special Agroforestry Issue. 2014;41-56.

Mbète P, Makosso S, Lélou B, Douh C, Ngokaka C. Vegetative multiplication test of Cola tree (Cola nitida) via the layering technique in Congo Brazzaville. Journal of Applied Biosciences. 2011;37:2485-2490.

Bonnéhin L. Peasant domestication of forest fruit trees: Case of Coula edulis Baill. Olacaceae and Tieghemella heckelii Pierre ex A. Chev., Sapotaceae, around the Taï National Park, Ivory Coast. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, The Netherlands. 2000;140.

Kengue J. Safou (Dacryodes edulis): Extensionist Manual. Southampton, Royaume-Uni, University of Southampton, International Centre for Underutilised Crops (ICUC). 2003;32.

Tchoundjeu Z, Tsobeng AC, Asaah E, Anegbeh P. Domestication of Irvingia gabonensis (Aubry Lecompte) by air layering. Journal of Horticulture and Forestry. 2010;2:171-179.

Rabiou H, Bationo AB, Abdou L, Segla KN, Adjonou K, Kokutse AD, et al. Vegetative propagation by aerial layering of Pterocarpus erinaceus : In the sudanian zone. International Journal of Recent Advances in Multidisciplinary Research. 2017;04(10):2902-2908.

Paluku A, Bwama M, Okungo A, et Van Damme P. Vegetative propagation of Cola acuminata (Pal. de Beauv.) Schott & Endlicher by layering in Kisangani, Democratic Republic of Congo. Int. J. Biol. Chem. Sci. 2018;12(3):1141-1150.

Harivel A, Bellefontaine R, Boly O. Aptitude for vegetative propagation of eight forest species of interest in Burkina Faso. Bo. For. Trop. 2006;288(2):39-50.

Zida AW. Study of the regeneration of Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Del., Sclerocarya birrea (A. Rich.) Hochst., and Diospyros mespiliformis Hochst. ex A. Rich. Master's thesis in Rural Development, Polytechnic University of Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. 2009;77.

Boutherin B, Bron G. Multiplication of horticultural plants. 2nd edition, Paris, Editions TEC and DOC. 2002;248.

Ouédraogo H. Population Structure and Regeneration Modes of Pterocarpus erinaceus Poir and other priority species used in handicrafts in western Burkina Faso. Master's thesis in Water and Forests, Polytechnic University, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. 2007;52.

Ricez T. Studies of low-cost regeneration methods of Prosopis africana and Detarium microcarpum in Dinderesso classified forest. Master's Degree II Bioress. Rég. Trop. et Méditer., University Paris XII Val de Marne, Paris. 2008;55.

Hammasselbé A. Vegetative Propagation of Guyava tree (Psidium guajava L.) under Sudano sahelian climate in the north of Cameroon. Tropicultura. 2005;23(2):105-109.

Bellefontaine R, Monteuuis O. The sucking of trees outside the forest: a way to partially revegetate the arid and semi-arid Sahelian zones. Vegetative multiplication of forest, fruit and ornamental trees. 2002; 135-148.

Nanson A. Genetics and improvement of forest trees. The agronomic presses of Gembloux ASBL. 2004;712.

Eyog MO, Ndoye O, Kengue J, Awono A. The edible forest fruit trees of Cameroon. IPGRI. 2006;204.

Kembelo AOK. Multiplication by layering of bread fruit Artocarpus communis var. Apyrenna. Tropicultura. 1992;10(2):59-60.

Mokhtari M, Kerbernes I, Bouiche L, Benismail MC, Kenny L, Bellefontaine R. Argan (Argania spinosa L. Skeels) air layering. Proceedings of the First International Congress of the Argan Tree, Agadir; 2011.