Main Article Content
The tropical regions have a rich diversity of tree species which provide the basis for a number of different forms and scales of economic activity. This study therefore was conducted with an aim of enhancing the knowledge of tree species diversity (seedlings and mature trees), and their relationship at the site. The experiment was laid out in three transects and quadrants in the forest: for mature trees the transects measured 100 m by 20 m, whereas for the seedlings quadrants measured 5 m by 5 m. That is along the ocean (T1), along human settlement (T2) and along the forest path (T3). Data was collected by counting mature trees species and seedlings. Data was analysed using R software 3.4.4 and results showed that a total of 22 tree species were recorded in the forest. In T1, the highest (22) species richness was recorded with 4 tree species restricted to the site (Bourellia nemoralis, Flueggia virosa, Turraea wakefieldii and Eryithrinia abyssinica). Combretum schumanii was most abundant in mature trees (89) followed by Lecaniodiscus fraxinifolius (36), Ochna thomasiana (21) and Adansonia digitata (14). All the above abundant species except Adanosnia digitata (2) were also abundant in seedlings with (189), (11) and (21) seedlings respectively. In T2, 9 tree species were recorded. Azadirachta indica was the most dominant in both mature trees (40) and seedlings (261) while Sterculia appendiculata recorded the lowest (1) and (0) respectively. T3 was rich with three exotic tree species namely Delonyx regia, Azadirachta digitata and Lannea schweinfurthii. Lecaniodiscus fraxinifolius was the most common with (35) followed by Combretum schumanii (11). While the seedlings were (23) and (67) respectively. In conclusion, it was evident that anthropogenic factors reduced species richness and the corag rag forest had more indeginous tree species and good seed recruitment.
WWF Project, “Coast Forest Status, Conservation and Management Kenya”: WWF; 1988.
Food and Agriculture Organization, “The Challenge of Sustainable Forest Management” chapter 2; 1993.
Murphy P, Lugo A. “Ecology of tropical dry forest”. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematicsm. 1986;17:67–88.
Farwig N, Berens DG. “Imagine a world without seed dispers-ers: a review of threats, consequences and future directions”. Basic appl ecol. 2012;13:109–115.
Chazdon RL. “Beyond deforestation: restoring forests and ecosystem services on degraded lands”. Science. 2008;320:1458–1460.
TFAP. “Tanzania Forestry Action Plan 1990/91-2007/08”, Ministry of Lands, Natural Resources and Tourism, Dar es Salaam; 1989.
Matiku P. “The Coastal Forests of Kenya”. A national synthesis report for the development of the WWF-EARPO Eastern Africa Coastal Forests Ecoregion Programme. 2002;1-4.
Burgess ND, Clarke GP, Rodgers WA. “Coastal Forests of eastern Africa: status, species endemism and its possible causes. Biol. J. Linnean Soc. 1998;64:337–367.
Burgess ND, Clarke GP. “The Coastal Forests of Eastern Africa. IUCN, Cambridge and Gland. 2000;433.
Clarke GP, Robertson SA. “Vegetation Communities. In The Coastal Forests of Eastern Africa”. N.D. Burgess & G.P. Clarke, eds. IUCN: Cambridge and Gland. 2000;83–102.
Kesley MG, Langton TES. “The Conservation of Arabuko-Sokoke Forest”. ICBP Study Report No.4. International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge; 1984.
Wijewardana. “Criteria and indicators for sustainable forest management: the road travelled and the way ahead Ecol. Ind. 2006;8:115-122.
UNESCO. “World Heritage Site of Songo Mnara, Tanzania”. Archaeological Prospection. 2015;21(4):255-262.
Cannon CH, Peart DR, Leighton M. “Tree species diversity in commercially logged Bornean rainforest,” Science. 1998;281(5381):1366–1368.
Wheelwright NT. “Competition for dispersers, and the timing of flowering and fruiting in a guild of tropical trees”. Oikos. 1985;44:465–477.
Blossey B, No¨tzold R. “Evolution of increased competitive ability in invasive non- indigenous plants”: a hypothesis. Journal of Ecology. 1995;83:887–889.
Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, “Ecosystem and human well being, biodiversity synthesis”, World Resource Institute Washington DC; 2005.
Bingelli P. “Invasive woody plants”; 1999.
Available:http://members. Lycos .co. uk/WoodPlantEcology/invasive/index.html.
Rejma nek M. “Invasibility of plant communities”.–In:Drake, J. A. et al. (eds), Biological invasions: a globalperspective. Wiley. 1989;369–388.
Macarthur RM. “Geographical ecology”. Harper and Row, New York. 1972;269.
Giliba RA, Boon EK, Canisius JK, Leonard IC, Musamba EB. “The Influence of Socio- economic Factors on Deforestation”: A Case Study of the Bereku Forest Reserve in Tanzania. Journal of Biodiversity. 2011;2:31-39.