Open Access Original Research Article

Diversity and Regeneration Potentials of Some Non-Timber Forest Product Species (NTFPS) in Bagale Hill Forest Reserve, Girei Local Government Area of Adamawa State

E. E. Dishan, U. Abdullahi, Y. Nasiru, A. A. Gujja

Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/ajraf/2022/v8i430160

This study assessed diversity and regeneration of some Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs) species in Bagale Hills Forest Reserve Girei Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria. Parameters evaluated included; species diversity of NTFPs in the study area and regeneration potentials of NTFPs in the study area. A sampling design consisting of an approximately 250m baseline and 5 transects of 20m was used. Thus, all NTFPs individuals, from seedlings to adult individuals, of each species were recorded and their DBH measured. The distance between consecutive transects was 50m. Diversity indices and Importance Value Index (IVI) of the species were determined using relevant formulae. One-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to compare results of Shannon Weiners Diversity Indices amongst transects and amongst tree, sapling and seedling species. The results of tree, saplings and seedling species in study site revealed 12, 9 and 10 species respectively. The individual trees, saplings and seedlings species were 41, 39 and 53 belonging to 7 families in the study site respectively. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) indicated that there was no significant difference in Shannon Weiners Diversity Indices among tree, sapling and seedling species in the forests (p ≥ 0.05). Results show species of NTFPs tree which included; Annona senegalensis, Adansonia digitata, Bombax Costatum, Detarrium microcarpum, Haematostaphis barteri, Hexalobus monopetalus, Parkia biglobosa, Tamarindus indica, Ximenia americana, Vitellaria paradoxa, Ziziphus Mauritania and Ziziphus spina-christi. The families with the highest number included Annonaceae, Fabaceae and Rhamnaceae which had 2 species each. Vitellaria paradoxa, Annona senegalensis and Tamarindus indica were the most abundant in Transects I-III, while Parkia biglobosa, and was the most abundant in Transects IV-V. Vitellaria paradoxa, Annona senegalensis, Tamarindus indica and Parkia biglobosa are further shown to have the highest Importance Value Index in all Transects. Results further showed saplings species as they occurred in all the Transects with Vitellaria paradoxa, Annona senegalensis and Detarrium microcarpum as the most abundant saplings species and highest Importance Value Index. Results showed seedling species of NTFPs encountered in all transects in which  Hexalobus monopetalus, Ziziphus Mauritania and Detarrium microcarpum occurred as the most abundant seedling species. Shannon-Weiner (H´) Diversity Indices were; = 1.16223, = 0.86756, = 1.62602, = 1.05492 and = 1.32966 in the respective transects. Shannon-Weiner (H´) Diversity Indices of all NTFPs trees, saplings and seedlings were; trees = 2.39016, saplings = 1.70359 and seedlings = 1.86854 respectively.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Traditional Know-How for the Cultivation of Muskuwaari Transplanted Sorghum in a Context of Climate Change (Mayo-Danay and Mayo-Kani, Far North Cameroon)

Pa Aï Vivien Nenwala, . Tchobsala, Dongock Nguemo Delphine, Saliou Moussa, Ibrahima Adamou, Danwang Djaowe Bernard, Oumar Mahamat Oumar

Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry, Page 15-29
DOI: 10.9734/ajraf/2022/v8i430161

Aims: Sorghum is a staple food crop and accounts for more than half of cereal production in the Far North region. It is ranked among the seven most important agricultural products in the CEMAC zone. Approximately 12% of this dry season sorghum, known as transplanted sorghum, is used extensively in the population's diet.

Study Design: The study conducted from 2017 to 2019 aims to assess the adopted techniques for better exploitation of Muskuwaari in the Far North region of Cameroon in a context where climate change has a strong influence on agricultural yield.

Methodology: The evaluation of Muskuwaari cultivation techniques is based on farmer surveys and direct field observations. A total of 390 people were surveyed in six  different villages in the two regions.

Results: Cultivation lasts from July to April, for a period of 10 months. Several activities were identified: primary preparation of the field from July to August, setting up nurseries from August (This activity is poorly represented in Kalfou (16.92% on both types of soil) and in Kaélé (18.46% on clay soil and 13.85% on hydromorphic soil), preparation of the field from September (The most common techniques used today are spraying and transplanting (Technique 6): 34.92% in Guidiguis, 52.31% in Touloum, 50.77% in Kaélé, 62.50% in Kalfou, 35.38% in Doukoula, 55.38% in Tchatibali on average for the clay type soil and 40,63% in Guidiguis, 47.69% in Touloum, 56.92% in Kaélé, 52.46% in Kalfou, 47.62% in Doukoula, 46.77% in Tchatibali on average for the hydromorphic type soil), transplanting from September, weeding from November and harvesting from January. These activities vary according to the type of soil used and the villages.

Conclusion: The analysis of these Muskuwaari cultivation techniques showed a slight shift in relation to the cultivation calendar described in the past by other authors. This shift is caused by the change in climate that shortens and/or extends the rainy season from one year to the next.

Open Access Original Research Article

Suitability of Idi-Apa Oke-Oyi Soil for Groundnut Cultivation

M. A. Adejumobi, O. E. Onofua, O. R. Mudi, S. O. Olaleye

Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry, Page 30-37
DOI: 10.9734/ajraf/2022/v8i430162

Soil supplies most of the mineral nutrients for plant growth through the plant’s root system. The need to determine the soil nutrient supplying capacity of the soil at Idi-Apa, Oke-Oyi area of Kwara State, Nigeria for groundnut cultivation is of major concern before embarking on large-scale cultivation of groundnut to avoid great loss. The project was therefore conducted to analyse the soil at Idi-Apa, Oke-Oyi area based on the fertility for the cultivation of groundnut.

Soil samples were taken at depths 0–30 cm and 30–60 cm (which is the maximum rooting depth for groundnut) from the land. The samples which were collected through the random method were sent to the laboratory and analysed for chemical parameters: pH; organic carbon (OC); organic matter (OM); calcium (Ca); magnesium (Mg); sodium (Na); potassium (K); and nitrogen (N). Physical properties (textural class) and other properties such as sodium adsorption ratio (SAR); exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP); base saturation (BS) and cation exchange capacity (CEC) were determined.

The result of the analysis showed that the pH (7.1-7.8), OM (2.36-6.93%), OC (1.37-4.98%), Na (0.04-0.15%), ESP (1.04 – 1.28%) and BS (95.37-95.85%) were found to be in the range of the requirements for groundnut production, while the other analyses parameters were outside the required range.

Generally, some of the major nutrients like and potassium needed by the crop have deteriorated while some others like calcium are available in sufficient quantities. This calls for the application of fertilizer to the soil to provide the lost nutrients and proper monitoring of the soil before the cultivation of groundnut. An integrated approach that involves the cultivation of nutrient-efficient varieties of groundnut on nutrient-deficient soils is suggested. In the absence of magnesium-efficient varieties, the application of magnesium as fertilizer is recommended.

There were no significant differences (p >.05) in the results between the two soil layers for all chemical properties considered except for organic where OM was significantly higher in the subsoil than in the topsoil.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Different Rates of Liquid Trichoderma harzianum on Growth Enhancement of Tissue Cultured Abaca Seedlings

Genelyn H. Mahusay, Onofre S. Corpuz

Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry, Page 38-50
DOI: 10.9734/ajraf/2022/v8i430163

This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of different rates of liquid Trichoderma harsianum on the growth enhancement of tissue-cultured Abaca seedlings. There are six treatments replicated four (4) times with 5 samples per replication. The following were the treatment: T0-control, T1- 50 ml of L.T, T2- 40 ml of L.T, T3-30 ml of L.T, T4- 20 ml of L.T, and T5-10ml of L.T/liter of water. Based on the results, it did not successfully reject the null hypothesis on plant height, pseudostem girth, leaf count per plant, leaf area per plant, and the number of primary roots of Abaca seedlings treated with liquid Trichoderma harsianum. While the two parameters successfully rejected the null hypothesis, there is highly significant that developed greater lengths for their shoot and root lengths treated with liquid Trichoderma harsianum. When compared to the control, the use of Liquid Trichoderma harsianum can significantly increase abaca growth. Treatment 3 of Abaca seedlings with 30 ml of liquid Trichoderma harsianum was the most effective of the five treatments with this substance. The correlation between treatments and parameters is also favorable.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluating Agricultural Extension Training and Education as Information-inputs for Maize Productivity in a Rural Set-up of North-Rift, Kenya

Joseph Kipkorir Cheruiyot

Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry, Page 51-60
DOI: 10.9734/ajraf/2022/v8i430164

Maize (Zea mays L.) is an important source of staple food in Kenya. Research innovations and physical inputs, and the capacity of farmers to use them are major ingredients for crop productivity enhancement. This study evaluated agricultural extension training and formal education as elements of farmers’ capacity to use innovations and inputs. The study was conducted in a rural setup of North Rift in Kenya. Data were gathered by use of interview schedules through cross-sectional survey from 502 households sampled purposively and by simple random sampling. Welch’s t-test and Mann-Whitney U test were used to test for differences between means. 42.8% of the participants reported that they had not received agricultural extension training, 57.2% had. 65.2% had up to primary level education, 34.8% had secondary and above. Formal education up to primary was regarded as basic. Results indicated that fertilizer-use rates and maize yields differed significantly between groups ‘who had received Extension training’ and those who ‘had not been trained’; t (482.785) = -9.228, P = .000 and t (496.513) = -7.095, P = .000, respectively. Regarding formal education, fertilizer-use rates and maize yields differed significantly between ‘basic education’ category and ‘higher than basic’; t (332.28) = -5.699, P = .000 and t (290.29) = -5.438, P = .000 respectively. The alternative Mann-Whitney U test showed similar results. Effect sizes as measured by Eta-squared (ƞ2) ranged from .06 (medium) to .1445 (large). It is concluded that Agricultural extension training had a highly significant influence on maize productivity. Formal education showed a positive impact on fertilizer-use adoption and maize productivity. This study has significance in the formulation of policy on agricultural extension training and investments to ensure all segments of society are equipped with relevant information for crop yield enhancement and food security.

Open Access Original Research Article

Chemical and Functional Properties of Different Rice Varieties from Ebonyi and Anambra States Nigeria

N. Amuzie Nmesomachi, Okorie-Humphrey Chinasa, U. Enyi Chukwunwike, N. Emecheta Wisdom, O. Ukpong Emem

Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry, Page 61-70
DOI: 10.9734/ajraf/2022/v8i430165

The chemical and functional properties of selected rice varieties commercially cultivated in Ebonyi and Anambra States of Nigeria were evaluated. Four rice varieties each (IR-8, 1416, Faro 44 and 306) from these States were analyzed for the mineral, vitamin, functional and phytochemical properties. The mineral contents of the rice samples were a range of copper (0.01-0.06mg/100g); Calcium (0.31-0.55mg/100g); lead (0.04 to 0.12 µg/g); Iron (0.54-1.26mg/100g); Zinc (0.92-1.76mg/100g), Phosphorus (12.25-28.68mg/100g). Potassium (58.01-74.02mg/100g); Manganese (0.05-0.23mg/100g) and Magnesium (0.19-0.58mg/100g). Vitamin contents of the rice samples had a range of thiamine B1(0.02-0.08mg/100g); Riboflavin B2 (0.10-0.28mg/100g) and niacin B3 (2.35-3.48mg/100g). The functional properties were in range of bulk density (0.71-0.83g/cm3); water absorption capacity (2.60-4.00g/ml); swelling index (1.20-1.82); gelation temperature (82.00-90.000C); amylose (17.88-27.50%) and amylopectin (73.54-81.85%). The phytochemical contents of the rice samples were in a range of tannin (0.01-02mg/100g); Phytate (4.27-9.28mg/kg); Oxalate (0.02-0.40mg/100g); flavonoid (1.14-5.58%) and carotenoid (473.59-4542.97mg/100g). The results of the mineral contents showed that the selected varieties were generally low in Copper, Iron, Zinc, Phosphorus, Manganese, Magnesium; high in calcium and potassium but low in lead content. The results of the vitamin contents showed that the selected varieties had low level of Thiamine (B1), Riboflavin (B2) and good level of Niacin (B3). The result of the functional properties showed that the selected rice varieties were showed lowest in bulk density and water absorption capacity; moderate in swelling index and gelatinization temperature; however. 306 and1416 had good level of amylose whereas IR-8 and Faro 44 had good levels of amylopectin. Results also showed that the selected varieties were generally low in phytochemical contents and wouldn’t pose nutritional risk when consumed. The result of this study can go a long way to an effective utilization of our indigenous varieties thus adding value to the crop.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Analysis of the Drying Parameters of Theobroma cacao (Cocoa Beans) and Musa paradisiaca (Plantain)

Kevin S. Otoikhian, Ubani O. Amune

Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry, Page 71-87
DOI: 10.9734/ajraf/2022/v8i430166

In order to prevent microbial spoilage and degradation responses during storage, agricultural products are typically dried to eliminate moisture from them. The removal of moisture is required for the preservation of this substance (drying). Under- or over-drying a product might result in loss through product damage. This work therefore focuses on the drying of two major crops grown by local farmers and agricultural companies; Musa paradisiaca and Theobroma cacao, obtained from a local farmer within Auchi, Edo state. The drying characteristics, including moisture content, moisture loss, and drying rates, were examined experimentally in this study at the university laboratory and Pax Herbal Clinic & Research Laboratories Ltd. This was obtained with the use of a locally fabricated cross and through circulation dryer for drying and a moisture analyzer to obtain moisture contents while taking into account temperature ranges between 40 and 80°C and time intervals from 5 to 40 minutes. The result of the experiment showed that, the crops' moisture loss and drying rate depend on the time and temperature they are exposed to. The Musa paradisiaca crop has more natural moisture than Theobroma cacao and hence, it takes a longer time to dry with a rapid moisture loss in the early 40 minutes of drying time and at temperatures within 40 and 70°C. Theobroma cacao dries more rapidly with a 72% moisture lost at temperatures between 40 and 60 C. A temperature range of 60 to 70°C at any drying time would therefore be sufficient to dry Theobroma cacao and Musa paradisiaca for their drying preservation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Rice Mill Pollution on Surrounding Environment: A Case Study in Sadar Upazila, Dinajpur, Bangladesh

M. A. Mannan, Md. Nuruzzaman, M. S. Bari, M. S. Rahman

Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry, Page 88-96
DOI: 10.9734/ajraf/2022/v8i430167

A study was conducted to find out the impact of rice mill pollution on the surrounding environment, agricultural production and human health status at Dinajpur Sadar Upazila through a semi-structured questionnaire during the period from October 2018 to October 2019. Nine rice mills were randomly selected and data were collected from a number of 104 respondents. Data were collected from the respondents at four distant places away from a rice mill viz. 0 meter (in and around mill area), 100, 500, and 1000 meters away. Appropriate scales were developed to measure both the independent and dependent variables by using Microsoft Excel and the SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) program. Results showed maximum respondents attitude (>50%) towards the impact of rice mill pollution on environment, agriculture and their health status were not positive (score was 8-15 out of 32), i.e., they were suffering from the rice mill pollutions. Study on four different distances showed that the closest surroundings were highly affected category (impact score >40 out of 60) by the rice mill pollution. The pollution effect on agricultural productivity and human health was in the highest category up to 500 meters away from the mill site, and it was found in decreasing trend (impact score <20) at the distance of 1000 meters away from the rice mills. The overall findings of the study suggest that rice mill should be established more than half a kilometer away from the human settlements and arable land to minimize the rice mill pollution hazards.

Open Access Original Research Article

Diversity, Biomass and Carbon Storage Potential of Some Tree Species in a Nigerian Natural Forest

A. S. Akinbowale, O. A. Meshach, O. I. Adetula, C. I. Arinzechi, K. J. Jayeola

Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry, Page 97-108
DOI: 10.9734/ajraf/2022/v8i430168

This study was carried out to assess diversity, biomass and carbon storage potential of some tree species in a Nigerian forest. All trees with Dbh >10cm were enumerated. Tree growth variables, namely the Diameter at the base (Db), Diameter at breast height (Dbh), Diameter at the middle (Dm), Diameter at the top (Dt) and height, were measured for basal area and volume estimation and their frequency of occurrence was ascertained for tree diversity assessment. Fifty-six (56) trees distributed among 21 species and 11 families were enumerated in this study area. Some of these species were Acacia ataxacantha, Blighia sapida, Alstonia bonnie, Ceiba pentandra, Celtis zenkeri, Khaya ivorensis, etc. Funtumia elastica had the highest frequency of occurrence (11 stems) with a Relative Density of 19.64%. Therefore, it could be regarded as the most abundant tree species in the  forest. Shannon Wiener index of 2.62 was recorded for this study with an evenness value of 0.86. Khaya senegalensis stored the highest carbon of 4.86 tonnes, and total Above Ground Biomass (ABG) of 53.64 g/m2, equivalent to 26.82 tonnes of Carbon was obtained for all the tree species. The results from this study showed that there is high level of forest degradation in the study area. Though, the forest could only store small amount of carbon but it has been able to reduce the amount of carbon escaping into the atmosphere. Conservative measures must be put in place to protect the forest from further degradation and this will go a long way in mitigating climate change by serving as carbon sinks.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Trees Species Diversity, Abundance and Soil Physicochemical Properties of Ukpon River Forest Reserves, Cross River, Nigeria

J. U. Ijomah, M. R. Igiri, I. B. Okey

Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry, Page 109-122
DOI: 10.9734/ajraf/2022/v8i4170

Current status of species diversity, composition and abundance provides guidance for their management and assessment of their ecological usefulness. In this study trees species diversity, abundance and soil properties of Ukpon River Forest Reserve was assessed. Line transect method was using to establish 4 sample plots of 50 x 50 m. Data on vegetation were collected using the appropriate tool and soil samples from the plot were collected with the aid of soil auger. Tree species composition, abundance and diversity indices were estimated using the appropriate formulae and soil samples analyzed following standard methods. A total of 194 individuals in 60 species belonging to 26 families were encountered in the study area. The dominant families are Leguminaceae, Moraceae, Fabaceae, Burseraceae, Apocynaceae, Calsalpinaceace and Euphorbiaceae. The total basal area estimated for tree species was 147.615m2 with Bombax bounpozen having the highest of 11.09m2 and relative dominance (RDo) of 7.51% while Piptadeniastrum africana has the highest relative density (RD) of 7.73% and importance value index (IMI) of 15.63%. Based on their relative density, 68.34% of the trees were Rare, 18.33% Threatened or Endangered, 5% Abundant/ Occasional and 3.33% Frequent. The study had a high Shannon – Weiner index value of 3.04 and Margalef richness of 20.67 and low dominance index of 0.06. The soil properties such as Clay, Organic matter, Phosphorus, Calcium, Cation Exchangeable capacity and Base Saturation were high. The pH value of 5.77 shows the soil were moderately acidic. These properties have been shown to improve soil fertility status and moisture content needed plant growth. Although the tree species diversity in the study area was high, some species appears to have been threatened while majority were rare, sustainable conservation effort should be geared towards ensuring their continuous existence.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Economic Analysis of Paddy Production in Kanchanrup, Saptari District of Nepal

Sumit Kumar Sah, Shubh Pravat Singh Yadav, Bishnu Yadav, Sunny Kumar Shah, Balmiki Chaudhary, Keshab Kumar Budha Magar

Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry, Page 135-146
DOI: 10.9734/ajraf/2022/v8i4172

Rice falls under the grass family Graminae. Paddy cultivation is the principal activity and source of income for millions of people worldwide. The purpose of this research was to better understand the paddy production economics, socioeconomic position, potential, and challenges in Kanchanrup municipality, Saptari District. Using a basic random sampling procedure, 60 rice growers were sampled. A pre-tested interview approach was used to obtain primary data, and a study of relevant literature was used to acquire secondary data. Further, descriptive statistics, SPSS, and MX Excel were used to analyze the data. Among 60 rice-growing farmers, the percentage of the male was 98.3% and females were 1.7% respectively. The average land under paddy cultivation per household was found to be 0.98 hectares. Production costs are estimated by adding variable and fixed costs, however, because rice is a short-lived crop, total fixed costs are not taken into account. Kanchanrup’s average variable cost of rice production is NRs. 114758.18. (Per hectare). Similarly, the total profit was NR 20979.32 and the total yield was NR 135737.5 (Per ha). Kanchanrup has a B: C ratio of 1.18, indicating that the paddy is growing economically viable in the Municipality. The business can provide returns of NPR 1.18 for every rupee invested, and the gross margin is positive, indicating that the investment is financially sustainable and the operation may proceed without any problems.

Open Access Original Research Article

Carbon Sequestration Potential of Roadside Trees in Southern Punjab, Pakistan

Muhammad Zubair, Sidra Khan, Syed Bilal Hussain

Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry, Page 155-161
DOI: 10.9734/ajraf/2022/v8i4174

Trees along roadside play an important role in climate change mitigation through carbon sequestration. Vehicular pollution is not only responsible for environmental degradation but also cause various health issues to inhabitants resides in the vicinity of such roads.  Present study was conducted to observe the role of trees grown along roadside and their underneath soil are efficient in carbon storage at four different sites of Multan city, Punjab, Pakistan. Four sites covering whole Multan city were chosen namely Khaniwal road (S1); Nangshah road (S2); Shujaabad road (S3). and Boson road (S4). The most abundant of the tree species viz-a-viz, Dalbergia sissoo, Eucalyptus camadulensis and Vachellia nilotica were sampled having 10 trees across 04 sites and measured for their diameter and height, whereas, underneath each tree soil samples were extracted at two depths viz., (0-20) (20-40) were recorded during the field visit. The study calculated biomass using allometric equations while soil organic carbon and organic carbon was assessed using Walkely Black method. Although species have different height and diameter, hence, their sequestration rate was also different. Data revealed that in all four sites the carbon sequestration rate remained higher in E. camaldulensis for biomass (Above ground, Belowground and total biomass), carbon and soil organic carbon estimation. as compared to D.sissoo and V. nilotica at all four sites. This research concluded that E. camaldulensis species may be be planted along the roadside due to its higher carbon sequestration rate in maintaining health roadside ecosystem.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Soil Compaction and Sowing Dates on Growth and Yield of Three Tef [Eragrostis tef (Zucc) Trotter] Varieties in Toke Kutaye District, Ethiopia

Abdissa Akawake, Habtamu Ashagre, Thomas Abraham

Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry, Page 162-169
DOI: 10.9734/ajraf/2022/v8i4175

Tef is a highly valued crop in Ethiopia as tef flour used to prepare Injera which is the most popular food of the country. However, its production and productivity are constrained by a number of problems, out of which soil compaction, inappropriate sowing time, and limited use of improved varieties are the most important. Hence, a field experiment was conducted during the 2021 main cropping season to evaluate the effect of soil compaction, sowing dates and tef varieties on yield and yield components of tef in Toke Kutaye district. Treatments were factorially arranged and laid out in randomized complete block design with three replications. Analysis of the data indicated that days to 50% emergence, days to 50% panicle emergence, days to 90% physiological maturity, and number of productive tillers of tef were significantly (P<0.05) influenced by main effect of soil compaction, sowing dates and varieties. Plant height, panicle length, number of total tillers, biomass yield, grain yield and straw yield of tef were significantly affected by the interaction of three factors. Highest plant height (124.26cm), panicle length (36.26cm), above ground biomass yield (7.47 t ha-1), and grain yield (2.8 t ha-1) were recorded from un-compacted soil, from early sown Dagim variety. Therefore, it can be recommended that farmers of the study area can grow Dagim variety early third week of july without trampling the soil to enhance the tef production and productivity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Understanding Consumers’ Perceptions of Wood Quality Assessment in Multan, Punjab, Pakistan

Muhammad Zubair, Zinnia Abbas, Syed Bilal Hussain, Muhammad Farooq Azhar

Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry, Page 170-178
DOI: 10.9734/ajraf/2022/v8i4176

Quality assessment regarding purchase of wood and wood-based products is inevitable to protect consumers for incurring losses. The present research was focused to enable consumer to assess quality woods. Questionnaire containing qualitative and quantitative information were prepared and face-to-face interviews were conducted. Respondents were selected by using purposive sampling technique. Data was gathered from 120 respondents, operating in Multan city, Punjab, Pakistan, and analyzed using SPSS-21 software. The study was conducted using survey research which is accomplished in three steps namely (1) questionnaires were assembled; (2) respondents were selected using purposive sampling and kept sample size as 120; (3) interviews were conducted using a well-constructed questionnaire containing wealth of quantitative and quantitative information. Variables used for quality assessment were durability, resistance to splitting, elasticity, hardness, color and weight. Results revealed that regarding choice of species for furniture making, Dalbergia sissoo and Cedrus deodara were equally most preferred species while Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Mangifera indica were least preferred based on perceived quality assessment indicators. Wood design is perceived as more effective factor in choice of wooden furniture. Respondents’ self-reports identified wood breakage as main problem mostly occurred between 2-10 years of furniture use and furniture replacement followed by repair and polish are reported as possible solutions. Regarding safety and economic use, trucks were considered efficient in wood transportation especially in bulk quantity and for transportation to shorter distances, motor cart remained preferred for economic reasons. It was concluded to develop wood quality standards for raw wood and furniture for easy choice for quality woods and furniture.

Open Access Original Research Article

Integrated Effect of Vermicompost and Inorganic Fertilizer Rates on Yield and Yield Components of Finger Millet [Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.] in Gobu-Sayo District

Mamo Mekonnen Feyanbule, Habtamu Ashagre, Thomas Abraham

Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry, Page 179-191
DOI: 10.9734/ajraf/2022/v8i4177

Finger millet is an important food and beverage crop in the highlands and mid lands of Ethiopia, however marginal cultivation and suboptimal fertilizer application have caused soil nutrient depletion and yield decline of the crop. With this in view, an experiment was conducted to evaluate the integrated effect of vermicompost and inorganic fertilizer blended NPSB with urea on yield and yield components of finger millet. The treatments consisted of combination of four levels of vermicompost (25, 50, 75, and 100%) and three levels of recommended NPSB and urea (25, 50 and 75%) rates; control (non-treated), recommended vermicompost alone (4.64 t ha-1), and inorganic fertilizer alone (100kg NPSB ha-1 and 90kg urea ha-1). The experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design in fifteen treatments with three replications. Significantly (P<0.05) higher value in number of days to 50% flowering (99.6 days) and days to 90%  to maturity (149.33 days) of finger millet were obtained with the application of 50:75% vermicompost and recommended NPSB with urea, the longest (70 cm) plant height was obtained with the application of inorganic fertilizer alone. Moreover, the highest number of tillers per plant (6.4) and productive tillers per head (3.96) was obtained with the application of 100:75% vermicompost and  recommended NPSB with urea, while the maximum (10730.4kg ha-1) dry biomass weight and straw yield (88235kg ha-1) was obtained with the application of 100 : 25% vermicompost and  recommended NPSB with urea. The highest net benefit ETB 56475.9 ha-1 with a marginal rate of return of 93.63% was recorded from application of 25:50% vermicompost (1.16 tons ha-1) and blended NPSB with urea, (50kg NPSB ha-1 and 45kg urea ha-1), fertilizer. Therefore, farmers in the study area are advised to use 25:50% vermicompost (1.16 tons ha-1), and blended NPSB with urea, (50kg NPSB ha-1 and 45kg urea ha-1), fertilizer to increase finger millet productivity. However, the experiment has to be repeated across locations and seasons to provide a reliable recommendation for sustainable finger millet production for similar agroecology.

Open Access Original Research Article

Above-ground Carbon Stocks of Tectona grandis and Gmelina arborea Plantations in Njala University, Southern Sierra Leone

Aruna Kainyande, Adegboyega A. Otesile, Hsu Y. Kyaw

Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry, Page 192-200
DOI: 10.9734/ajraf/2022/v8i4178

The unprecedented increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration has attracted global research attention on the potential role of tree plantations in climate change mitigation. There is an urgent need to estimate the above-ground biomass (AGB) and carbon stock in forest plantations. This is particularly essential for Sierra Leone, where above-ground biomass (AGB) and carbon stock data are presently lacking. This study estimated the above-ground biomass accumulation and carbon stock of Tectona grandis Linn.f. and Gmelina arborea Roxb. in the spacing and plantation trials at Njala University, Southern Sierra Leone. The assessment was based on a total inventory of trees having a diameter at breast height (DBH) ≥ 5 cm and tree height. Above-ground biomass (AGB) was estimated using the allometric equation by Chave et al. (2005), and above-ground carbon (AGC) stock was calculated by multiplying the biomass with a conversion factor of 0.5. The result showed that the mean above-ground carbon stock for Gmelina arborea was higher in the plantation trial (25.2 t ha-1) than in the spacing trial (7.5 t ha-1). For Tectona grandis, the mean above-ground carbon stock was similarly higher in the plantation trial (6.6 t ha-1) than in the spacing trial (1.5 t ha-1). The results further suggest that the variation in the means of above-ground carbon stock is not dependent on the tree species type and experimental site because there were no significant differences (P>0.05) between the tree species and experimental sites. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of the Potential of Non-timber Forest Products in Livelihoods’ Sustenance of the Flood Proximate Communities of the Indus Basin, Pakistan

Muhammad Zubair, Mahnoor Karim, Syed Bilal Hussain

Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry, Page 201-210
DOI: 10.9734/ajraf/2022/v8i4180

Flood-proximate communities are the most affected from the destructions caused by floods occurring almost every year in Pakistan. The people in these areas, due to frequent natural calamities, usually have poor economic conditions. These communities mainly rely on conventional income-generating strategies i.e. agriculture, fishing, daily wages etc. But due to natural disasters, these methods end up yielding the least profit, thus different means of income-inducing strategies are needed to explore for the community’s sustainable growth. The current study focuses on the potential of Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs) in the region of D I Khan in supporting the livelihoods of the inhabitants. The research utilized a mixed method approach (blend of quantitative and qualitative) through a semi-structured questionnaire aiming to assess the livelihood sustenance of flood proximate communities through NTFPs. A total of 150 respondents were randomly selected from 05 administration units, tehsils. The results revealed that communities in non-flooded areas (NF) used collecting NTFPs mostly for construction material whereas those in flooded areas (F) used it for construction as well as utensil making (F:41 %; NF: 39%; P<0.05; c2: 0.812). Both groups were involved in harvesting and using shrubs such as S. munja, T. latifolia, N. ritchiana, S. sesban and T. dioca and trees such as E. camadulensis, V. nilotica, and D. sissoo for firewood and cottage industry. Both groups were significantly different in meeting their livelihood needs such as their income source and meeting household expenses efficiently (F: 48%; NF: 100 %; P<0.01; c2: 12.03). The present study concludes that the NTFPs sector in flood-proximate areas has been neglected as a profitable income strategy for sustainable livelihood of the poor in this region.

Open Access Original Research Article

Modeling the Water Balance of Agricultural Land in the Determination of the Growing Season in Buru Regency

Edy Said Ningkeula, Said A. R. Assagaf, Iskandar Hamid, Idrus Hentihu, La Jati Buton

Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry, Page 211-219
DOI: 10.9734/ajraf/2022/v8i4181

This study aims to determine the value of surplus and water deviation of agricultural land in Namlea District, Buru Regency. The study was conducted in Namlea Subdistrict, Buru Regency, Maluku Province. Materials used, questionnaires, climate data, air temperature, precipitation, humidity, solar rays 10-20 years. Tools used, computer equipment, writing stationery and location maps. To obtain the surplus value and water deficit of the land used data on the average amount of monthly precipitation and the average monthly temperature using the calculation of the Thornthwaite method. The calculation of the groundwater balance is carried out using a bookkeeping system. The data used are monthly potential evapotranspiration values, climate station data, monthly average rainfall, and rainfall at a 50 percent chance level. The observation parameters calculated in this study are rainfall, evapotranspiration, and determination of land water balance. The results of this study showed that the difference in rainfall and evapotranspiration in Namlea District was highest in June at 85.40 mm, and the lowest in October at -99.83 mm. This value indicates that the evapotranspiration value is greater than the average monthly rainfall value during the period 2010 – 2019. Namlea Subdistrict experienced potential water loss for evaporation (APWL) in May of 35.30 mm, in August to November of August of 65.26 mm, in September of 156.24 mm, in October of 256.07 mm and in November of 303.45 mm. The land water balance in Namlea Subdistrict, namely rainwater deviation, occurs in May, then August to November, while the water surplus occurs in December to July, and continues in June and July. Namlea district annual runoff is 854.01 mm. Regarding agricultural irrigation development policies, this study recommends that it is necessary to pay attention to weaknesses in each food crop sub-sector.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Different Potting Media on the Germination and Early Growth of Newbouldia laevis. (P. Beauv.) Seem.

E. L. Anozie, A. E. Egwunatum, J. U. Ezenwenyi, C. I. Okonkwo

Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry, Page 220-234
DOI: 10.9734/ajraf/2022/v8i4182

The research was conducted at the screen house of the Department of Forestry and Wildlife, Faculty of Agriculture, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra state, Nigeria. The study was carried out from January to May 2021 to access the effect of different potting media on germination and early growth of Newbodia laevis.

Treatments were laid out in a Complete Randomize Design (CRD) with four replications. The germination parameters measured were days to germination, germination period and germination percentage while the growth variables measured includes plant height, collar diameter and number of leaves. The potting media used were T1 (topsoil and cow dung), T2 (topsoil and goat dung), T3 (topsoil and poultry dropping), T4(topsoil and sawdust), T5 control (topsoil only).

Data collected were subjected to R software, using the following packages: plyr, car, gvlma, one-way tests, user friendly science, ggplot. Results obtained indicated that T1 had the highest germination percentage (85%) followed by T2 and T3 with germination percentages of 82% and 80% respectively. T4 had the poorest germination percentage (60%). The results also showed that the treatment had direct effect on the seedling early growth; the highest mean collar girth was observed in T1 with 1.85 cm while the least was observed in T4 with 0.72 m. The highest mean height was observed in T2 with 22.15 cm while the least was observed in T4 with 7.23 cm.  Also, the highest mean number of leaves was observed in T2 with 21leaves while the least was observed in T4 with 7 leaves. Based on the findings of these experiments it is recommended that for maximum growth and optimum germination of Newbodia laevis, T1 and T2 should be used, sawdust had poor germination and growth performance and thereby is not recommended for the early growth of Newbodia laevis seedlings.

Open Access Original Research Article

Factor Affecting Purchase of Quality Wood: Understanding Perceptions of Wood Workers Using Logistic Regression Model

Muhammad Zubair, Zinnia Abbas, Syed Bilal Hussain

Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry, Page 243-248
DOI: 10.9734/ajraf/2022/v8i4184

Woodworkers purchase wood from farmlands as well as from the timber markets, transport them and later convert them into usable products keeping in mind their profitability and customer relationship. Wood with problems not only devoid woodworkers with profit, in turn, affect customers with low quality products. This research is, therefore, formulated to understand factor affecting wood workers ‘choice of quality wood in Multan timber market, Pakistan. A total of 60 respondents were interviewed by administering questionnaire using snow-ball sampling technique. The wealth of information obtained thus analyzed using logistic regression technique to draw meaningful inferences. The results revealed that wood problem related to Insect’s pests and diseases (B= .234, Wald 3.687, sig .05), wood defects (B=-.294, Wald 3.833, Sig -.050) and perception of safe transportation (B= 3.833, Wald= 5.479, sig =.019) positively affect wood workers’ choice of quality wood purchase. The research concluded that woods available in timber markets should be free from insect pests and defects damage to save woodworkers and customers premiums. This might entail trainings organized by government for consumers and wood workers to identify wood problems and purchase quality woods.

Open Access Original Research Article

Medicinal Plants Traditionally Used for the Treatment of Skin Diseases in Southern Punjab, Pakistan

Muhammad Farooq Azhar, Ehsan Ali, Sohail Qadir, Muhammad Zubair, Muhammad Qadir Ahmad

Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry, Page 249-260
DOI: 10.9734/ajraf/2022/v8i4185

Skin conditions are among the most common health problems that affect people. Modern, allopathic, and natural medicine can all help to promote healthy skin.  Human skin problems can be successfully treated using medicinal herbs because they contain a wide variety of bioactive molecules. The goal of this research is to look into the dermatological properties of medicinal plants used by different ethnic communities in southern Punjab, Pakistan and it seeks to establish a foundation for the development of novel medications with anti-skin activity. The snowball sampling method was employed for expert sampling in the southern Punjab districts of Multan and Vehari. Direct interviews with traditional herbalists (Hakeem) and shopkeepers selling medicinal plants (pansar) were done between August and December 2021. After gaining their prior informed agreement, 120 experts from southern Punjab were interviewed. 21 medicinal plants were recorded to be utilized in the treatment of skin problems. Plants are largely members of the Asteraceae and Piperaceae families. Leaves (62%) are the plant portion most frequently used as a treatment for skin conditions. Decoction (23%) is the most frequently used method in the study area. Aloe barbadensis miller having the highest Relative Frequency Citation (RFC) value while the frequency citation (FC) value ranged from 20 to 60. The highest value of FC was also recorded for Aloe barbadensis. The fidelity level (FL) ranged from 66 to 100%. The documented 15 medicinal plants have a higher FL value than 85%.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Cone Physical Characteristics and Extraction Exposure Period on Seed Yield of Pinus patula

Alice Adongo Onyango, Shadrack Kinyua Inoti, Nelson Maara, James Munga Kimondo, Jesse Owino

Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry, Page 261-272
DOI: 10.9734/ajraf/2022/v8i4186

This study examines the correlation between extraction exposure periods and cone physical characteristics on Pinus patula seed yield. Systematic random sampling was employed for tree identification in an even-aged clonal seed orchard, and the laboratory phase was laid down as a factorial experiment with two factors: cone physical characteristics and extraction exposure period at three levels. Seed counts were taken for cones categorized as; heavy, light, narrow, and wide at three extraction exposure periods 6 hours, 12 hours, and 24 hours in a constant oven temperature of 65°C. The experiment had 12 (L1,H1,N1,W1,L2,H2,N2,W2,L3,H3,N3,W3)treatments with 60 cones per treatment. The time spent counting and returning cones during the inter-stage observation ranged from 10 to 15 minutes. Data collected were tabulated and means analyzed using ANOVA with results generated as per the objectives. The number of seeds released within the hours of exposure was captured as the seed extraction rate. The first six hours yielded the optimum number of seeds per cone with the mean highest number of seeds from wide cones. The lowest mean number of seeds released observed was 28, from light cones, while the highest mean number of seeds was observed to be 56 from wide cones. Cone sorting based on size before extraction is recommended for optimized seed yield. The stages of seed extraction employed here can be used in mechanized seed extraction cabinets equipped with timers at controlled temperatures.

Open Access Original Research Article

Agromorphological Characterization of a Rubber Tree-Teak Agroforestry System in Central Côte d’Ivoire

Eric Francis Soumahin, Bi Bianuvrin Noël Boué Voui, Adjouawa Armandine N’guessan, Samuel Obouayeba, Yatty Justin Kouadio

Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry, Page 273-292
DOI: 10.9734/ajraf/2022/v8i4187

Aims: Faced with environmental issues, soil degradation and the scarcity of arable land, farmers are adopting several cropping practices, including agroforestry. It is in this context that a study entitled “Agromorphological characterization of a rubber tree-teak agroforestry system in central Côte d’Ivoire” was carried out in order to assess the effects of this crop combination on the agromorphological parameters of these crops.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in Lomo Sud, a village in the city of Toumodi (central Côte d’Ivoire) from February to August 2022.

Methodology: Two experiments were carried out on two plots, a rubber tree one and a teak one. On the rubber tree plot, ten treatments were defined depending on their proximity to teak. On the teak plot, seven treatments were determined depending on their proximity to rubber trees. On each plot, the experimental design was in one tree plot design. The parameters taken into account in the study on rubber trees were stand, girth, rubber yield and rate of tapping panel dryness. For teak, the parameters assessed were stand, girth, straightness, cylindricity, branching, pruning and health condition.

Results: For rubber trees, the results showed that teak negatively influenced the number of rubber trees under tapping, growth and rubber yield, which were reduced by 125, 18 and 110%, respectively. For teak, the results showed that rubber trees positively influenced the growth, straightness, branching and pruning of teak.

Conclusion: The rubber tree-teak agroforestry system assessed in central Côte d'Ivoire is beneficial for teak but detrimental to rubber trees.

Open Access Original Research Article

Height-Diameter Models for Prediction of Teak Stand in Western Nigeria

Y. I. Egonmwan

Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry, Page 293-300
DOI: 10.9734/ajraf/2022/v8i4188

The Diameter-height relationship has proven to be an important part in growth and yield models which describe stand changes. Ten existing nonlinear height-diameter models were used to fit and evaluate Tectona grandis stand in Oluwa forest reserve (Nigeria) in this study. Three hundred and ninety-seven (397) trees were measured for their stand variables of which diameter at breast height (Dbh) and height (Ht) were paramount. All functions were fitted using weighted nonlinear least square regression (NLLSR), considering hetroscadasticity of variance. Model performance were evaluated using three fit statistics such as root mean squared error (RMSE), Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) and Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC). Logistic 3-parameters H-D function as the best fit based on the model’s evaluation statistics and its predictive ability with values of RMSE, AIC and BIC as 2.8925, 1974 and 1990, respectively. Gompertz, Weibull, Chapman-Richards and Michaelis-Menten models also provided good fit results comparable to the observed height-diameter relationship. Logistic function with 3-parameters has been confirmed to provide a secure estimate of total tree height for Tectona grandis in Oluwa Forest Reserve.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Tree Volume Equations for Gmelina arborea Roxb. Stand in Southwestern, Nigeria

Y. I. Egonmwan, W. O. Orukpe

Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry, Page 301-310
DOI: 10.9734/ajraf/2022/v8i4189

Effective and sustainable forest management is dependent on volume and yield models. This study was carried out to evaluate ten (10) different tree volume equations for the sustainable management of the Gmelina arborea stand in Oluwa forest reserve. A total of 590 trees were used in this study. The observed volume of the sample trees were calculated by the application Newton‘s formula. The performance of each model were evaluated using five fit statistics such as root mean squared error (RMSE), r-squared (R2), Akaike Information Criterion (AIC), Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) and relative rank sum were used. All the models in this study performed significantly well in volume estimation as the R2 were above 75% for all the models. Four models (model 10, 8, 6 and 7) performed best for the data set based on their evaluation statistics and as such they were selected for volume estimation of Gmelina arborea stand in Oluwa forest reserve. The evaluation test revealed that model 10 had the least RMSE of 0.2986, hence it was ranked the best model for the study. Scatter plots showed positive correlation between DBH, total height, BA and total volume. The regression residuals were normally distributed, with constant variance and a zero mean.

Open Access Original Research Article

Growth and Productivity of Cauliflower in Aonla Based Multistoried Agroforestry System

Laboni Shifat Pingki, Tofayel Ahamed, Md. Main Uddin Miah, Md. Arifur Rahman Khan, Satyen Mondal

Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry, Page 311-321
DOI: 10.9734/ajraf/2022/v8i4190

Fruit tree vegetable-based agroforestry systems (FVAS) are being introduced in highland cropping systems of Bangladesh. This combined production system is applicable against changing climate, ensuring nutritional requirements along with food security, ecological balance, and economic profitability. The present study explored the performance of cauliflower as lower story crop in aonla based multistoried agroforestry system. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replication. The treatments were T1= Aonla + carambola + lemon + dragon fruit + cauliflower, T2= Aonla + dragon fruit + cauliflower, T3= Dragon fruit + cauliflower, T4= Cauliflower in the open field (Control). Among different combinations of agroforestry systems, the highest curd yield of cauliflower (15 t ha-1) was recorded under dragon fruit-based system (T3) whereas most of the morphological parameters were maximum in the aonla + carambola + lemon + dragon fruit-based system (T1). The highest benefit–cost ratio (2.95) was noted in aonla+dragon+cauliflower-based system (T2) followed by dragon fruit based system (T3), while the highest land equivalent ratio (3.78) was calculated in the aonla + carambola + lemon + dragon fruit-based system (T1). This study revealed that, aonla + dragon + cauliflower based agroforestry system showed relatively higher economic returns and maximum land use efficiency in the upland cropping system.

Open Access Review Article

Capparis spinosa var. inermis Turra: Presentation, Uses and Socio-economic Benefits

Refka Zouaoui, Hanine Ben Aoun, Mejda Abassi, Youssef Ammari

Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry, Page 123-134
DOI: 10.9734/ajraf/2022/v8i4171

The caper (Capparis spinosa var. Inermis Turra) is a bushy sub-shrub, 30 to 50 cm high. It is a small "sarmentose" shrub with unarmed twigs belonging to the Capparaceae family. It is a species of Saharo-Arabian and Mediterranean origins, which is characterized by food, ecological, socio-economic and ornamental importance. It is also known for its medicinal and therapeutic virtues, which are very interesting given the pharmacological activities of the phytochemicals present in the different parts of the caper tree (roots, leaves, buds, fruits, bark and seeds). Its mode of propagation is by seed or by semi-woody, woody, semi-herbaceous and herbaceous cuttings.

Open Access Review Article

Dairy Cattle Mechanized Farming Equipment Applications and Future Development Trends

Peifang Cai, Rong Dong

Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry, Page 147-154
DOI: 10.9734/ajraf/2022/v8i4173

With the rapid development of China's dairy industry and the continuous increase in the number of dairy cows, mechanized dairy farming equipment has been widely used. Therefore, mechanized dairy farming equipment in China has entered a new stage of development. From the current development of the dairy farming industry, mechanized farming has made outstanding contributions to improving the output of a single cow, ensuring the production safety of milk products, and improving the level of feeding management technology. Therefore, the implementation of mechanized dairy farming is the key to the development of China's dairy industry, and the R & D of standardization, finalization, serialization, and the complete set is also its future development direction. Dairy equipment is the basis of large-scale dairy farming, this paper briefly analyzes the development of feeding equipment, milking equipment, feed processing equipment, manure collection equipment, etc., and outlines the advanced and applicable characteristics of some products. The research in this paper provides a reference for the improvement and application of related products, effectively promoting the mechanized development of China's cattle industry and meeting the increasing consumer demand of residents.

Open Access Short Communication

Research on Blockchain-based Traceability System for Agricultural Products

Lingyun Dong, Rong Dong

Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry, Page 235-242
DOI: 10.9734/ajraf/2022/v8i4183

To solve the problems of the existing agricultural products traceability system data storage security is not high, centralization is serious, data is easy to be tampered with and data trust, as well as to protect the quality and safety of agricultural products, safeguard the rights and interests of consumers and strengthen the supervision of agricultural products industry. In this paper, we propose a research on the safety traceability system of agricultural products based on blockchain on the traceability business process of the existing agricultural products traceability system. The decentralization of blockchain can ensure the immutability, transparency and accuracy of data traceability, solve the problems in traditional agricultural products traceability, improve the safety of agricultural products, and provide strong data support for the supervision of agricultural products industry. The advantages and challenges of implementing blockchain-based agricultural products traceability system are also elaborated, and the important links when applying blockchain technology to agricultural products traceability system are analyzed to provide reference for the research and establishment of blockchain agricultural products traceability system.