Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluating the Effects of Biochar and Organic Soil Amendments on Seedling Development of Annona muricata. Linn

E. L. Anozie, A. E. Egwunatum, I. O. Igbinosa, C. L. Umeh, U. Udeze

Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry, Volume 9, Issue 1, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ajraf/2023/v9i1191

The importance of appropriate growth media for propagation of Annona muricata seedlings cannot be over emphasized. An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of biochar and organic soil amendments on seedling development of Annona muricata using different potting media. The treatments were Control; Topsoil only (T0), Mineralized goat dung (T1), Mineralized saw dust (T2), Mineralized poultry dropping (T3) and Mineralized biochar (T4). The experiment was laid out in Completely Randomized Design (CRD). Parameters accessed include seedling height (cm), collar diameter (cm) and number of leaves.  The data collected were subjected to analysis of variance and significant means were separated using Duncan multiple range test at 0.05 significant level. Result shows that Mineralized biochar had the best performance in seedling height, collar diameter and number of leaves with mean values of 26.703±1.5488, 4867±0.22904 and 4.4451±1.55031 respectively. While the least performance in seedling height, collar diameter and number of leaves was recorded in the control with mean values of 19.986±1.1265, 0.3230±0.17363 and 3.6765±1.14724 respectively. However, there were significant differences in seedling heights and collar diameter among the treatment types at 5% level of probability, but the number of leaves was not significant. Annona muricata seedlings thrives excellently in biochar potting media. Hence, the use of biochar potting media should be adopted as the best growth media for early growth and development of Annona muricata seedlings.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Impact of Decreasing Forest Areas on Increasing Global Temperatures

Faradiba Faradiba

Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry, Volume 9, Issue 1, Page 10-16
DOI: 10.9734/ajraf/2023/v9i1192

Forests act as a producer of oxygen which is essential for the survival of living things. Degradation of forest areas causes the extinction of various species. It creates a greenhouse gas effect that impacts global warming, triggering regional climate change. This study aimed to determine the effect of decreasing forest area on increasing the annual average temperature in the world. The data used in this study are world forest area data and world average yearly temperature during the 1990-2020 period, with the addition of carbon emission data as a control. The analytical method uses Ordinary Least Square (OLS). The results obtained in this study, namely a decrease in every 1 km2 of forest area, will have a positive impact on increasing the annual average temperature. There was a significant influence in 1990-2010 with an increase in the country's average temperature of 0.0037225oC. An increase in carbon emissions of 1 ppm increases temperature by 1.046833oC. The results of this study illustrate that the reduction in forest area increases temperature, which triggers global climate change. Particular policies are needed from the government to maintain forest sustainability so that the ecosystem is maintained.

Open Access Original Research Article

Preparation and Characterisation of Modified Biochar from Vitex Doniana (Black Plum) Seeds Using Chemical and Thermal Treatments

Anakhu A. Esther, Victor I. Ameh, Anetokhe A. Meshach, Atulute O. Oluwasegun

Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry, Volume 9, Issue 1, Page 17-27
DOI: 10.9734/ajraf/2023/v9i1193

Agricultural wastes from plant have continued to be a huge contributor to the global biomass generation and their utilization for biochar is growing. The goal of this research was to produce and characterize modified biochar of Vitex doniana (Black plum) seeds using chemical and thermal treatments. To achieve this, the vitex seed was carbonized for 2 hours at 400°C in a pyrolysis reactor. The resulting char was then impregnated for 24 hours with Phosphoric Acid (H₃PO₄) and potassium hydroxide (KOH) as chemical activating agents before being thermally activated at 400°C, 500°C, 600°C, and 700°C respectively. The purpose of the characterization was to see how the activators and activation temperature affected the adsorbents generated. The quality of absorbents produced was affected by the treatment of char with chemical agents and the activation temperature, according to the results. The samples had distinct functional groups on the surface, according to FTIR analysis, and SEM analysis via microscopy revealed the presence of pores on the surface. Iodine absorption testing reveals that materials activated with KOH had a higher absorption value, peaking at 950mg/g for KOH treated and 600°C activation temperature. The pore diameters and pore volume of KOH samples were determined using BET analysis. The results demonstrate that KOH activated at 600°C has larger pores and a higher pore volume, implying that KOH at 600°C has a higher adsorption capacity. The char sample was also subjected to TGA analysis in order to better understand its behavior in temperature settings.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Importance of Community Empowerment through Strengthening Farmer Groups in the Forest Management Unit (KPH) Way Terusan Central Lampung, Lampung Province Indonesia

Christine Wulandari, Hari Kaskoyo, Samsul Bakri, Yudi Safril Ariza, Cindy Yoeland Violita, Puspa Hartati

Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry, Volume 9, Issue 1, Page 28-37
DOI: 10.9734/ajraf/2023/v9i1194

This study aims to examine and determine the implementation of activities in strengthening the Forest Farmer Group (KTH) in Way Terusan Forest Management Unit (KPH) of Central Lampung, Lampung Province. This study is conducted because apparently only about 87% of 42 forest farmer group still actively run their program. The research was conducted on August - September 2022 using direct observation research method by collecting primary and secondary data. There were 42 respondents that represented the 42 KTH as a research data. The data is analyzed by using descriptive approach that includes both descriptive qualitative and descriptive quantitative research. Based on the results, it is known that the implementation of activities in strengthening farmer groups in KPH Way Terusan are: forming the KTH and involving them in all activities, such as the Fire Care Community activity, Community capacity building based on needs, Improving community welfare through the development of creative economy businesses, Establishing Community Self - Help Forestry Extension Officers (PKSM) and the Establishment of Community Polhut Partners (MMP). The success of strengthening this KTH are supported by :(1) Understanding the potential and weaknesses of the group (39 respondents), (2) Considering the opportunities and challenges that will be faced in the future (28 respondents), (3) Choosing various alternatives that exist to overcome the problems faced (33 Respondents), (4) Organizing group and community life in harmony with the environment on an daily basis (42 respondents), (5) Have expertise and partners in promote results the forest after participate in programs implemented by KPH (40 Respondents). The conclusion of this research is 42 respondents agree that success reinforcement on KTH is supported with exists increase connection life group and coexistent society with environment in a manner continuous.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Assessment of Regeneration, Structure and Species Diversity of Woody Vegetation in Disturbed and Undisturbed Sites of a Secondary Montane Forest, Kenya

Jemimah Achieng Ocholla, Shadrack Kinyua Inoti, Gilbert Obati Obwoyere

Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry, Volume 9, Issue 1, Page 38-48
DOI: 10.9734/ajraf/2023/v9i1195

Secondary montane forest is created by either natural or artificial disturbances resulting in open canopies. It is an important resource in relation to economic and ecological values, however, it faces over-exploitation. The objective of this study was to compare regeneration, forest structure and species diversity of woody vegetation between disturbed and undisturbed sites of the South-Western (SW) Mau forest reserve in Kenya. A nested research sampling design was used, whereby, plots of 500 by 500 m were demarcated in Itare, Maramara and Ndoinet blocks. In disturbed sites, canopy openings were randomly selected to constitute the sample units. In undisturbed sites, sample plots of 30 by 20 m were randomly nested. Regeneration, forest structure and species diversity were then determined per sample unit. Wilcoxon rank sum test with continuity correction was then used to compare the three parameters in disturbed and undisturbed sites of the forest. A total of 41 gaps were selected (7 large, 11 medium and 23 small gap sizes) in disturbed sites while a total of 19 sub-plots (Itare 5, Maramara 6 and Ndoinet 8 times) were laid in undisturbed sites. There was a significant difference in forest structure between disturbed and undisturbed sites of the forest (P = 0.01, P value adjustment method: BH). The forest was invaded by Piper capensis, Ribes spp. and ferns in disturbed sites which affected the three woody vegetation population parameters. Therefore, enrichment planting was recommended in disturbed sites to conserve biodiversity within the forest.