Open Access Original Research Article

Growth Response of Sunflower to Potassium Sulphate Application in Saline-sodic Soil

Badar- Uz-Zaman, Arshad Ali, Muhammad Arshadullah, Jalal- Ud-Din, Muhammad Suhaib, Munazza Yousra, Shoaib Ahmed

Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AJRAF/2018/42238

Aims: To evaluate the effect of SO42- and K+ application on growth of sunflower hybrids besides on growth parameters in a saline sodic soil.

Study Design: Laid out the experiment in Complete Randomized Design in triplicates, applying potassium sulphate in saline- sodic soil for the growth of sunflower.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in Soil Salinity and Bio-saline Research green house of Land Resources Research Institute at National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad, Pakistan during the period from January to March, 2018.

Methodology: Applied potassium sulphate @ 50 mg kg-1 in saline- sodic soil (ECe = 6.5dS m-1, pH = 7.7, SAR = 17) for the growth of sunflower hybrids viz.  SMH-9706 and PARSUN-3.

Results: Sunflower responded significantly (P = 0.01) for growth and chemical parameters. Fresh and dry mass of PARSUN-3 were higher 14 and 12 percent respectively than that of SMH-9706. Sulphur and potassium ions uptakes were higher 32 and 22 percent respectively in PARSUN-3 than SMH-9706. Sulphur and potassium decreased Na+/K+ ratio in both the hybrids.

However, this decline was higher in PARSUN-3 than SMH-9706.

Conclusion: This study identified the way to evaluate promising genotypes of sunflower for growth and production with sulphur and potassium nutrition under saline sodic soil. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Socio-economic Activities on Tree Species and Conservation Trend in Eco-zones of Taraba State, Nigeria

E. M. Abubakar, J. H. Dau, E. K. Rabo

Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/AJRAF/2018/41626

This study was carried out with the aim to assess the effect of socio-economic activities on tree species and conservation trend Ecological zones of Taraba State, Nigeria. Stratified and simple random sampling designs were used to distribute 270 copies of structured questionnaire to the people. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The results showed that 64% of respondents were not participating in conservation of tree species due to poor infrastructural facilities and poverty in the study area. The majority of the people were involved in various forms of deforestation (farming 46%, fuel wood gathering 22% and settlement 9%). These practices had greatly affected tree species diversity and abundance in the study area; thereby increasing environmental problems such as flooding and soil erosion (16%). Most of the economic tree species (19) were decreasing in availability with Rauvolfia mitoria and Sterculia setigera endangered. The major factor responsible for tree species decline was anthropogenic activities (67%). Majority of the people were willing to support trees conservation. Thus, there is the need for further research to update the current list of conserved species on national red list species data bases. Also, Government stakeholders should provide more awareness on environmental education and alternative domestic energy in order to minimize indiscriminate felling of trees and over exploitation to prevent extinction of these economic tree species in the study area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development of Triploid Callus of Hevea brasiliensis Using Endosperm

U. K. Divya, K. Rekha, S. Sushama Kumari

Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/AJRAF/2018/42469

Aim: To generate a pathway for development of Hevea triploids using endosperm tissue as an explant.

Study Design: Standardization and optimisation of various parameters for isolation and culture of endosperm tissue and protoplast. Completely randomized design for data from different treatment. Ploidy of the obtained culture was determined.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biotechnology, Rubber Research Institute of India and duration of the study 12 months.

Methodology: Endosperm tissues were collected from Hevea seeds of different developmental stages. Somatic embryogenesis from endosperm tissue using callus mediated embryogenesis and direct method of embryogenesis were carried. Endosperm tissue from both immature and mature seeds was cut into thin slices and subjected to enzymatic digestion for the release of protoplasts. Different concentrations and combinations of cell wall digestion enzymes and osmotic agents experimented. The callus obtained from endosperm tissue was subjected to cytological analysis and flow cytometric analysis.

Results: Endosperm tissue from immature fruits was found to be ideal one week between (8-10 weeks) both for somatic embryogenesis and for the release of large amount of protoplasts. Of the two basal media tried, Nitsch medium favoured callus induction, 6 % callus induction from mature endosperm tissue in presence of 2,4-D (6.3 µM) and Kin (12.1 µM) and 10 % callus induction from immature endosperm tissue in presence of  BA (4.4 µM) and NAA (2.2 µM). Direct embryogenesis (2 %) has been obtained from immature endosperm in MS basal medium along with GA3 (2.0 µM) and BA (11.1 µM). A few of the endosperm protoplasts showed division when cultured over K&M medium with NAA (0.1 µM) 2,4-D (0.2 µM) and BA (0.4 µM).

Conclusion: Endosperm can be used for the development of triploids of Hevea brasiliensis. The ploidy variants i.e. triploids, developed through these in vitro techniques can be further used in Hevea brasiliensis breeding

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Fish Meal Replacement with Blood Meal on the Growth Response and Utilization of Hybrid (Clarias gariepinus ♀ X Heterobranchus bidosarlis ♂) Fingerlings

B. S. Aliu, M. Q. Dako

Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/AJRAF/2018/42952

This study examined the replacement of fishmeal with bloodmeal (BM) in Practical diets of clariid catfish hybrid “Heteroclarias” (Clarias gariepinus ♀ x Heterobranchus longifilis ♂) fingerlings. Five diets containing varying levels were formulated. Diet 1, (10% BM); Diet 2, (15% BM); Diet 3, (20% BM); Diet 4 (25% BM) and Diet 5 (30% BM) as a replacement for fishmeal were fed to three replicate of Heteroclarias with an initial weight of 5.9±0.01 g. Diet 1, (10% BM) had the best growth rate and feed utilization (p<0.05) as it had the highest value of weight gain (1.60), feed intake (2.53), relative weight gain of 15.66 and Specific Growth Rate of 1.58. There was no significant difference (P<0.05) in the feed conversion ratio across all five treatments. Therefore, bloodmeal can replace fishmeal totally but will be best at 10% replacement level in diets of Heteroclarias without compromising the growth and carcass composition.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Farm Risk and Coping Strategies among Maize Farmers in Lere Local Government Area of Kaduna State, Nigeria

S. K. Vihi, B. Jesse, A. A. Dalla, Y. Sadiku

Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AJRAF/2018/43304

This study assessed the farm risk and coping strategies among maize farmers in Lere Local Government Area of Kaduna State, Nigeria. The multistage sampling procedure was used to select 120 farmers from six maize producing communities out of the three districts in the Local Government Area for the study. Primary data were collected through the use of questionnaires and interview schedule and were subjected to both descriptive and inferential statistics. Findings from the study revealed that the mean age of the maize farmers is 40 years with 69.0% of them being male and 72.5% married. The study also showed that 41.4% of the respondents had a secondary education with a mean farming experience of 9 years. The results also revealed that the mean annual income of respondents is one hundred and twenty-six thousand, forty-one naira (N126041). The study also revealed that majority of the farmers were risk averse (60.8). The logistic regression result showed that that age, sex, educational level and farm size had a positive and significant relationship with the adoption of farm risk coping strategies. The major risk coping strategies adopted by farmers in the study area include; fertilizer application, mixed farming, non-farm activities, irrigation etc.