Tropical rainforest is continuously threatened by timber exploitation and conversion to other land uses. In this study, tree species diversity and forest structure of Eda Forest Reserve in Ekiti State, Nigeria, were assessed using systematic line transect and purposive sampling techniques for plot demarcation and data collection. Two transects (2000m long) were laid in secondary forest and encroached farmland in the reserve, while the primary forest fragments were sampled purposively. Twenty sample plots (20m×20m) were laid out on each of the vegetation types. All trees >10cm diameter at breast height (dbh) were identified to species level and enumerated for total height and dbh. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics such as tables, charts, frequency, percentages and diversity index analysis using paleontological statistics software (PAST 2.14). There were 60 species from 22 families, with Sterculiaceae, Caesalpiniaceae and Moraceae being the most abundant families. Individual tree populations were 380 trees/ha, 280 trees/ha and 137 trees/ha in the primary forest, secondary forest and encroached farmland, respectively. Species composition comprised 39, 38 and 19 species in primary forest, secondary forest and encroached farmland, respectively. Khaya ivorensis had the highest relative density in the three vegetation types (19.74%, 24.53% and 27.74%) respectively, while Ceiba pentandra had the highest height (53.87m). The mean basal area ranged from 0.36m2/ha (encroach farmland) to 3.18m2/ha (primary forest). Shannon-Wiener Indices were 3.22, 3.14 and 2.51 for the primary forest, secondary forest and encroached farmland, respectively. Eda forest reserve is a heterogeneous ecosystem that had variations in tree population due to anthropogenic activities. The secondary forest and encroached farmland have great potential for recovery if conservation efforts are put in place.
Aims: To assess the utilisation and monetary values of Non-Timber Forest Products in the Nyanganje Forest Reserve, Kilombero District, Tanzania.
Study Design: Questionnaire survey was carried out in three villages namely Signali, Sagamaganga and Lungongole surrounding Nyanganje Forest Reserve.
Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out in Kilombero District, Tanzania between June and December 2017.
Methodology: Data were collected from three sample villages based on the fact that they all lie in the Eastern Arc Mountains and share the border with the Nyanganje Forest Reserve. Data collected were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) where qualitative and quantitative variables were analysed. Qualitative data were analysed using content analysis whereby quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistical analysis.
Results: It was revealed that NTFPs is highly utilised in a study area. Firewood was mentioned to be the most utilised by 94% of the respondents, followed by poles (91%), wild fruits (86%), wild mushrooms (84%), wild vegetables (81%), bushmeat (77%), honey (59%) and lastly the medicinal plants (53%). In this study, it was further observed that NTFPs were often a vital source of foreign exchange and revenues in a study area. This was evidenced by the total income accrued from NTFPs activities in the Nyanganje Forest Reserve to worth TZS 45,505,300 annually which is equivalent to USD 18,172.
Conclusions: The Nyanganje Forest Reserve has valuable NTFPs, and if the Government needs to take any decision for alternative use of the forest reserve, the value of these NTFPs to the local communities should be taken into consideration.
The objective of this study was to identify the most suitable pre-treatment method that will increase germination and enhance seedling growth of Albizia procera. The fresh seeds of A. procera were collected from five provenances viz., Bilaspur, Bastar, Korba, Raigarh and Sarguja of Chhattisgarh, India to study the germination and growth characteristics of A. procera after pre-sowing treatment. The experiment was carried out at Forestry Nursery (Department of Forestry, Guru Ghasidas Vishwavidhyalaya, Bilaspur, Chhattisgarh, India). Three pre-treatment methods were employed i.e., soaking in coldwater for 24 hrs at room temperature, in hot water (50°C), and Hormonal treatment IAA (25%). These all pre-treatments were undertaken separately and compared with control i.e. after each pre-treatment.The result show significant differences (P≤0.05) in germination percentage and seedling growth by pre-sowing treatments as compared to control across all the five provenances. The overall results confirm the stimulation in the aforementioned germination and growth characteristics of A. procera by hormonal treatment (IAA 25%) for raising elite nursery stock, and for successful plantation. Also, it was recorded that across all the provenances Bilaspur and Bastar provenance show better results for both germination and growth attributes than other provenances.
The aim of this research article was to evaluate the constraints to agricultural productivity in Kainji Lake National Park (KLNP). This research was carried out between the months of January to December, 2011. There were five districts in Kainji Lake National Park in which three communities were selected from each district using simple randomised sampling technique. A total of 600 structured questionnaires were used for this study of which 40 copies were administered in each of the 15 villages sampled in the study area. The retrieved data were analysed using both descriptive and inferential statistics, stepwise multiple regression was also adopted to identify the contribution of agricultural constraints to the total food production in the study area. The results showed that the year class of 11-15 years had the highest duration of farmland cultivation of 35.8%, while the least farmland cultivation duration was class 20 years and above with 4.6% (Table 2). The size of randomly selected farmlands in the villages in all the districts revealed that the farm sizes less than 1 acre had the highest usage of 30.5%, while the farm sizes with the least usage was above 5 acres with 16.44% (Table 3). Maize and Guinea corn were the most commonly cultivated crop, while Millet and Vegetables were the least cultivated crops in the study area (Table 4). The regression analysis of the constraints indicated that high cost of human labour had the highest regression coefficient (R2 ) of 0.82, followed by the high cost of transportation with (R2) 0.80, inadequate extension services had (R2) of 0.78, lack of funds and credit facilities had 0.72 R2 value, lack of modern farming equipment had R2 value of 0.60. While poor marketing had the least R2 value of 0.58. There were high levels of agricultural constraint in Kainji Lake National Park with commensurate negative effect on the survival of the surrounding communities. Hence, it was recommended that, modern farming equipment should be provided at subsidised rates by the government to encourage agricultural productivity among the farmers in the study area. Government should also construct better roads to ease transportation and movement of farm produces to the market centres. An urgent intervention is required to improve the livelihood of these communities to avoid over-exploitation and adverse impacts on conservation and sustainable management of Kainji Lake National Park.
A field experiment was conducted in three consecutive years (2014- 2016) in the western zone of Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. It was conducted with the objectives of estimating the runoff and soil loss of four different land uses. Area closure, grazing land, treated cultivated land and the untreated cultivated land was selected in a watershed. A total of 12 runoff plots with a size of 15 m X 3 m were constructed in each land use type with the same slope (8.5%). About 25 cm height corrugated iron was constructed for each plot. A runoff collection ditch with dimensions of 2 m length, 1.2 m width and 1 m depth was dug and lined with a thick plastic sheet at the bottom side of each runoff plots to collect runoff discharge and sediment yield. After each rainfall event runoff volume in the ditch was measured and subsequently, the one-liter sample was taken to laboratory from each runoff collection ditch after the runoff is mixed vigorously. Samples filtered using filter paper and oven dried at 105 oC for 24 hours for sediment concentration calculation. The highest average surface runoff 7277 m3/ha/year and the corresponding soil loss 110 t/ha/year were recorded in the grazing land. The lowest runoff 597 m3/ha/year and lowest soil loss 2 t/ha/year were also recorded in the area closure. Hence, the actual runoff and soil losses recorded were higher in untreated cultivated land and grazing land than area closure and treated cultivated land which warrants the requirement of more effective soil and water conservation measures. Therefore, area closure is the best technology for soil and water conservation and rehabilitation of degraded land. The treated cultivated land is also the best technology on cultivated land to conserve soil and water.