Surface runoff and soil loss were monitored in six land use types: secondary broadleaved mixed forest (BL), coniferous plantation (CF), extensively managed bamboo plantation (EB), intensively managed bamboo plantation(IB), economic forest(EF) and farmland (FL) in the east (Fuyang, Zhejiang Province), central (Pingjiang, Hunan Province) and west (Muchuan, Sichuan Province) of China. The results showed that (1) there were significant differences of surface runoff among the land use types. The surface runoff and runoff coefficient of FL ranked highest, followed by EB, then CF, IB and EF, with BL as the lowest. The surface runoff and runoff coefficient of FL was about 2-7 times of that of BL. (2) the effects were similar of land use type on the soil loss: the BL had the lowest soil loss, followed by CF, EB, IB and the highest in FL. (3) The characteristics of soil erosion for different land use types were significantly different along the gradient from east to west. The surface runoff coefficient and soil loss on the eastern China was significantly lower than that on the west, which may be attributed to the different natural conditions, social and economical development stage and the resources investment into soil and water conservation.
This study was conducted at Kamalganj Upazila of Moulvibazar District in Bangladesh during January to September 2015 to observe the diversity of plant species in the homestead area with their stratified arrangement to identify homestead agroforestry practices and their relationships with the selected properties of the respondents. Face to face interview was performed with 135 respondents to collect the data with the help of a questionnaire. Existing in the homestead area, the result demonstrated that a total of 29 different agroforestry practices and 6 different vertical layers were recorded in the homestead area. Out of different categories of plant species, 40 timber, 25 fruits and 23 medicinal and other plants were recorded. Total twenty-nine different Agroforestry combinations were recorded namely: 1. Ginger-Areca nut, 2. Coconut-Betel nut-French bean-Cabbage, 3. Areca nut-Mango-Banana-French bean, 4. Banana-Eucalyptus, 5. Areca nut-Country bean-Cauliflower, 6. Mango-Banana-Sweet gourd-Cauliflower, 7. Banana-Koroi-Brinjal-Papaya-Coconut, 8. Jackfruit-Chili, 9. Eucalyptus-Papaya-Chili, 10. Acasia-Country bean-Taro, 11. Jackfruit-Betel nut, 12. Turmeric-Eucalyptus, 13. Lemon-Coconut, 14. Tomato-Mehogoni, 15. Sugarcane-Papaya-Country bean-Areca nut, 16. Aquaculture-Mangium, 17. Aquaculture-Aasia hybrid, 18. Aquaculture- Koroi, 19. Aquaculture-Mango, 20. Aquaculture-Banana-Acasia(hybrid)-Blackberry, 21.Aquaculture-Koroi-Eucalyptus-Ber-Areca nut, 22. Aquaculture-Chalta-Bamboo, 23. Turmeric-Koroi, 24. Turmeric-Areca nut, 25. Areca nut-Betel leaf, 26. Coconut-Country bean, 27. French bean-Acasia hybrid, 28. Turmeric-Acasia hybrid, 29. Aquaculture-Acasia hybrid was found in the study area. Among the classes of agroforestry systems agrosilviculture was found most common (about 62%).
Large Cardamom is high value and low volume crops with highest export potential in Ilam as well as in Nepal. The district was selected purposively for the analysis of internal and external factors of production. The primary data were collected during February-July 2017. The strength as main internal factors of this crop were its high price and higher profit, high demand in international market, traditional knowledge and experience, less capital investment requirement for its cultivation, and generating rural women employments. However, the other internal factor as its weakness also was comprised of high price fluctuation, lack of improved knowledge on orchard management, lack of price information to farmers, low yield due to very old orchard and no certified variety as per the altitude domains. The analysis of external factors i.e. the opportunities of the crop were the establishment of essential oil extraction industry, development of variety according to the altitude, production and distribution of disease free saplings, conduction of research and development/training, and potentiality of land area expansion for cultivation. Similarly, the other external factor or threat of the crop included the declining productivity due to diseases, price fluctuation, lack of technical manpower, drying of irrigation water resources, and propagation from mother rhizomes. The crop was found very popular due to its better strengths and opportunities. Hence, government should be given special emphasis to overcome its weaknesses and threats through research and development program.
The study was conducted to assess and predict Land use and Land cover changes of Yandev Forest reserve in Gboko, Benue state Nigeria. The study utilised Landsat images for 1986, 2001 and Nigeriansat-X was used for 2012, The images were obtained from the National Centre for Remote Sensing Jos. A supervised classification was used after the images were subjected to different e processing techniques. The land use and land cover was classified into five (5) classes of Built up, Bareland, Cultivated area, Forest and Shrubland. The trend of land use/land cover in the reserve revealed that Bareland increased from 0.60% in 1986 to 0.67% in 2012, built up area increased from 0.73% in 1986 to 1.78% in 2012, Shrubland, increased from 7.63% in 1986 to 12.51% in 2012. Forest area decreased from 66.6% in 1986 to 40.32% in 2012. Cultivated area increased from 24.44% to 44.72% in 2012. Forest area lost 5003.02ha within the 26 years period to other form of land use. All the other land use/landcover classes increased during the period with cultivation area having the highest increase of 3858.99ha and bare land with the least area of change of 13.32ha. The study established that tremendous land use/landcover changes are going on in the Yandev forest reserve which could be linked to rapid urbanization of Gboko town. Enrichment planting of reserve, massive awareness against deforestation and sustainable use of the reserve is recommended.
Aims: The study aimed to evaluate the effect of growing media including mineral nutrition and sucker management to determine the effective growing media composition for plant growth and early flowering.
Study Design: The experiment was conducted at Himalayan Orchid Farm, Godawari during 2013 to 2014. Three factors: media (viz. farmers’ media, bark + charcoal + litter, and bark only); NPK and sucker management (control and removal of side sucker) were evaluated under factorial design with four replications.
Results and Discussion: The result revealed that emergence of flower differed among the media and NPK level as media having bark only gave the highest number of flowering plants, while farmers practiced media was resulted in none flowering plants. The sucker retained management showed the higher vegetative growth; while sucker removed treatment gave the higher flowering plants. Similarly, bimonthly application of NPK 19:19:19 was found superior over control.
Conclusion: It is concluded that the emergence of flowers found excellent on the media having bark only among the potting media and NPK level as while farmers practiced media was resulted in none flowering plants. Thus, potting media having higher proportion of pine bark would be advised for early flowering in contrast to compost on the media.