Open Access Policy Article
Sustaining a resilient and reliable water cycle is a global challenge, which inevitably needs proper understanding and action at many levels. One quarter of the world’s population depends on water from forested catchments, where behavior of atmospheric water nonetheless governs the forest-water interactions and thus the ultimate water availability. As per a coarse estimation the water vapors comprise one quarter of 1% of atmospheric mass being equivalent to just 2.5 centimeters of liquid water over the entire Earth. Such water availability raises more tangible concerns for most people than do temperature and carbon. Ever escalating populations and living standards are badly impacting the earth’s surface in variety of ways, as 1.5 million Km2 of dense tree cover were reported to be lost between 2000-2012, leading to highly impeded access to fresh water. Majority of studies of how forest land use and its change influences climate and hydrology rely on models (mostly imperfect owing to pitiable/incomplete process understandings and poor parameterization). It is projected that land cover changes have caused a 5 to 6 % reduction in global atmospheric wetness. A plethora of alike estimations/inferences are included herein to offer relevant R&D insights on core theme of this paper, by encircling reviews of few global observations and findings towards forest influences on quality and quantity of water. With increasing demand for agricultural and urban land (owing to population/affluent life-styles) majority of forests are put under pressure. At this juncture tropical regions like India remains more crucial, as their water and land use policies are often influenced to big extent by many perceived effects from hydrological functioning of forested catchments. This paper offers certain food for thought by summarizing relevant scientific consensus of key aspects of forest-water relationships and couple of wider aspects towards ‘forest-water interactions’ and ‘water quality and pollution facets. Apprehensions and knowledge gaps about hydrological impacts of forest management and also the emerging futuristic R&D issues are elaborated with specified line of sights on effects of forests and forest management on various stream flow parameters, soil erosion, stream sedimentation, water quality, landslides and water uses. Owing to their inherent capabilities and capacities, the forests govern available moisture for tree growth, evapotranspiration (ET), soil infiltration, ground water recharge, and runoff; hence could be projected as futuristic ‘water towers’. Hydraulic redistribution of water in soil remains other important activities by the forest, where tree root structures plays a vital role to facilitate both upward and downward water dynamics. Even under low to intermediate tree cover each tree remains capable to improve soil hydraulic properties even up to 25 m from its canopy edge, with higher hydrologic gains in comparison to associated additional losses (transpiration and interception). Among most profound and alarming insights offered by this write up are; critical knowledge gaps on understanding importance of forests to water, trends of findings from a few catchments based hydrological experiments on water yield, roles forest may play in regulating water fluxes and rainfall patterns. Other key messages offered for water and forest policy makers includes issues like water use by forests, flood flows, water quality, erosion, climate change, energy forest, and forest water productivities.
Open Access Original Research Article
An in-depth knowledge of the richness, diversity and species composition of plant community is vital for providing information for planning and sustainable utilization. This study assesses the diversity of tree species of Ikogosi warm spring and Arinta waterfall watersheds in Ekiti State, Nigeria. Direct observation and vegetation assessment were used for data collection in two hectares (ha) of land divided into four plots of 50 m by 50 m in each of the two study sites (Ikogosi warm spring and Arinta waterfall). Two plots were diagonally selected within each hectare. All living trees of basal diameter ≥10 cm were identified and classified into families. Shannon-Weiner diversity index, species evenness, relative density (RD), relative dominance (RD0) and importance value index (IVI) were used to assess and compare tree species diversity and abundance. Sorenson’s coefficient was used to compare sites for overlapping of similarity. The results revealed that seventy eight (78) species and 25 families were recorded in both watersheds with family Malvaceae having the highest species density (15). Malacantha alnifolia (5) and Voacanga africana (5) were the species most frequently encountered. Species diversity indices revealed vegetation with very high tree species diversity and abundance in the two study sites. Species evenness value revealed even distribution in Arinta waterfall than in Ikogosi warm spring. Diameter and height distribution of trees at the two watersheds indicates a forest structure that is immature and still expanding. Anthocleista vogelii, has the highest value of RD0 (15.63) and IVI (10.6) respectively. The study revealed that some species such as Anthonotha macrophylla, Aningeria robusta, Bridelia atroviridis, among others are threatened and endangered. Consequently, it was recommended that management strategies should be put in place to improve status of the watersheds while conservation efforts should be stepped up for species with rarity index value to prevent them from going into extinction.
Open Access Original Research Article
Aims: The aim of this study is to estimate the total carbon sequested by some Woody plant Species in Makurdi zoological garden and its contribution to climate change.
Study Design: Random sample plots of 100 m × 100 m were located in the field using a Garmin GPS and simple allometric procedures using standard carbon inventory principles and techniques that are based on data collection and analysis of carbon accumulating in the above-ground biomass, below-ground biomass, and soil carbon using verifiable modern methods were adopted.
Place and Duration of Study: Field experiment was carried out at the Makurdi zoological garden, Benue State, Nigeria between September and October 2018.
Methodology: The non-destructive method was used with the view to determine the above ground biomass (AGB), below ground biomass (BGB), Estimate the above ground carbon (AGC), below ground carbon (BGC), Total Carbon Content (TCC) and also to estimate the Above ground C02 and below ground C02 and the total C02 Sequestered in the study area.
Results: A total number of 27 species of trees belonging to 16 different families were found in randomly selected sample plots. The diameter at breast height (DBH) was measured at 1.3 m from ground level with a good measuring tape while heights of plants were measured using haga altimeter. The result showed that a total of 3331.05 ton/ha of C02 was estimated to have been sequestered using the non-destructive field measurement.
Conclusion: Total average standing biomass of various tree species was calculated to be 907.6395 tons/ha whereas the total average carbon sequestered was 302.6918 tons/ha. Carbon sequestration capacity of trees increased as the age of trees increases. Therefore it can be concluded that the older trees have higher carbon content than younger trees hence, they are reservoirs of carbon.
Open Access Original Research Article
Salinity intrusion causes problems in the coastal areas of Bangladesh. Climate change creates hazards like cyclone, sea level rise, and storm surge have been increasing the salinity problem in many folds. The coastal region covers about 20% of the country; from where cultivable land more than 30%. Agricultural land uses in these areas are very poor, because of high content of salinity in Rabi season. Already, 830,000 million hectares of land already identified as affected by soil salinity. A field experiment was carried out at saline prone area at Binerpota, Satkhira under natural salinity condition during Rabi season 2017-2018. The experiment was carried out with rice variety Binadhan-10.This variety was evaluated under four transplanting methods i.e., M0: Control (No Slope/flat land), M1: Ridge and furrow (each furrow 30 cm wide accommodating 3 lines transplanting), M2: Ridge and furrow (each furrow 60 cm wide accommodating 5 lines transplanting) and four levels of gypsum with control G0: control, G1: 75 kg ha-1, G2: 150 kg ha-1 as basal and G3: 150 kg ha-1(75 kg ha-1 as basal +75 kg ha-1 42 DAT). The experiment was laid out in a split plot design with three replications. The unit plot size was 3 m x 4 m. The recommended fertilizer doses applied for the experiment were 80 kg N ha-1, 15 kg P ha-1, 50 kg K ha-1. Nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, sulphur and zinc were supplied from urea, TSP, MoP, gypsum and zinc sulphate monohydrate respectively while urea was applied in three equal splits. Application of gypsum had significant effect on plant height, number of effective tiller m-2, length of panicle, total number of spikelets panicle-1, thousand grain weight, number of filled spikelets panicle-1, grain yield straw yield. It seems that the crop responded to the application of gypsum. Overall results suggest that an application of gypsum The highest grain yield (7.7 t ha-1) was produced in ridge and furrow method where gypsum rate was 150 kg ha-1 (75 kg ha-1 as basal + 75kg ha-1 at weeks after transplanting followed by (7.4 t ha-1) basal application of 150 kg ha-1 gypsum along with N, P, K, Zn and Boron might be necessary to ensure satisfactory yield of rice in saline prone area under natural salinity condition.
Open Access Original Research Article
The research examined the status of adoption of BRRI dhan49 and explored the contribution of the selected characteristics of the cultivators to their adoption of BRRI dhan49. The methodology of this study is an integration of quantitative and qualitative methods based on data collection. Data were collected from 116 BRRI dhan49 cultivators from January 21 to February 20, 2017. Descriptive statistics and multiple regressions were used for analysis. Most of the farmers (78.4%) belong to medium adoption followed by high adoption (11.2%) by the rice cultivators. Among the influential variables, the level of education, annual family income, extension media contact, rice cultivation knowledge and attitude towards BRRI dhan49 were significant contributors and provided 53.8% contribution on adoption of BRRI dhan49. It was also found that 3.4%, 16.3%, 38.8%, 33.7% and 7.8% farmers were innovators, early adopters, early majority, late majority and laggards, respectively. It can be concluded that the composite adoption of BRRI dhan49 production technologies is moderate and needs further advancement. Based on the findings, it is recommended that respective authorities should implement and popularize farm-based projects on a massive scale for the adoption of BRRI dhan49.