Open Access Original Research Article

Contributions of Selected Non Timber Forest Products to Socio Economic Lives in Oban Hills Forest Reserve, Nigeria

Anoh, Regina Ado, Ogar, David Abua, Alobi, Alobi Obaji, Ifebueme, Nzube Michael

Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/ajraf/2019/v4i130049

The study appraised the socio-economic contributions of selected Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs) to the people in Oban Hills Group Forest Reserve, Nigeria. The research was carried out from November, 2014 to January, 2015. Data were collected through the administration of structured questionnaires to randomly selected household heads in ten (10) communities from the east and west corridors of the Oban Hills Forest Reserve. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics such as tables, means, simple percentages and graphical illustrations. Inferential analysis was conducted using student’s t-test and correlation analysis. Results indicate that 68.90 percent of the respondents were male while 31.10 percent were female with 42.10% being farmers. Also 73.60 percent of the respondents were married and mostly in the age brackets of 31-40 years. Result on correlation revealed that there was significant relationship between occupation and household size (p ≤ 0.05), experience and occupation relate significantly with the income of the respondents at 0.01 and 0.05 level of significant respectively, while marital status relates negatively with household size and experience (p ≤ 0.01). The study revealed that Irvingia gabonensis (Bushmango), Gnetum africana (Afang), Archachatina spp (Snail), and Bushmeat were the major NTFPs harvested from the forest in the study area. On ranking the NTFPs, in relation to income generation and employment, results indicate that Bushmango was the major income generation source, with the highest employment openings in the study area. The people of Oban Hills Group Forest Reserve depend on NTFPs directly and indirectly for income generation and employment, There is need for sustainable harvesting of NTFPs in the study area to enhance their preservation and sustainability in the wild and also proper marketing channels of NTFPs to generate adequate income to improve the living standard of the people in the study area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Conservation and Restoration of Endangered Plant Species in the Tropical Forests

H. D. Japheth, J. A. Ugbe

Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ajraf/2019/v4i130050

Indiscriminate charcoal productions, timber harvesting, demand for farmlands and overgrazing have aggravatedland degradation process in the tropical regions. At each point of this cycle, species are lost and biodiversity is obtainable only in the National Parks, Game reserves, Forest reserves, Wildlife sanctuaries. Forests and its resources are important assets that the tropical regions can sustainably manage for its renewable potentials, environmental benefits and socio-economic importance to mankind. Thus, this paper aim at reviewing past research works to provide profound solutions for conservation and restoration of forests and its products in the mid of financial shortcoming among the developing nations in the tropical regions. Based on this review, endangered plant species such as Prosopis africana, Parkia biglobosa, Khaya senegalensis, Gleditsia assamica, Gymnocladus assamicus, Aquilaria malaccensis and others can be restored; and genetic heredity (with qualitative characteristics) can be sustain for generational use if only we will all ignore the voice that “demands high financial resources for the management of endangered species before it can be conserved and restored”. Even without the provision of financial resources for conservation and restoration of endangered species, with high interest and euphoria among the youths, the young populace can conserved and restored the tropical forests and its biodiversity in the regions. This can be achieved by frequent inclusion of youths in decisions making and the use of non-formal education methods such as drama, playlet, music concerts among others. Therefore, it is recommended that communities around forest reserves in the tropical regions should be economically empowered, so that they can have alternative sources of livelihood that are biodiversity friendly, thus, reducing their dependence on forests and forest products.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluating Efficiency of Sampling Schemes in Tropical Natural Forests: Review and Simulation Experience from Kenya

Joseph Hitimana, James Legilisho Ole Kiyiapi, Balozi Kirongo Bekuta

Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/ajraf/2019/v4i130051

Forest measurements, especially in natural forests are cumbersome and complex. 100% enumeration is costly and inefficient. This study sought to find out reliable, efficient and cost-effective sampling schemes for use in tropical rain forest (TRF), moist montane forest (MMF) and dry woodland forest (DWF) in Kenya. Forty-eight sampling schemes (each combining sampling intensity (5, 10, 20, 30%), plot size (25, 50, 100, 400 m2) and sampling technique (simple random sampling, systematic sampling along North-South and along East-West orientations) were generated for testing estimates of forest attributes such as regeneration through simulation using R-software. Sampling error and effort were used to measure efficiency of each sampling scheme in relation to actual values. Though forest sites differed in biophysical characteristics, cost of sampling increased with decreasing plot size regardless of the forest type and attribute. Accuracy of inventory increased with decreasing plot size. Plot sizes that captured inherent variability were 5mx5m for regeneration and trees ha-1 across forest types but varied between forest types for basal area. Different sampling schemes were ranked for relative efficiency through simulation techniques, using regeneration as an example. In many instances systematic sampling-based sampling schemes were most effective. Sub-sampling in one-hectare forest unit gave reliable results in TRF (e.g. SSV-5mx5m-30%) and DWF (e.g. SSV-10mx10m-30%) but not in MMF (5mx5m-100%). One-hectare-complete-inventory method was found inevitable for regeneration assessment in montane forest.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Different Moisture Harvesting Techniques on Seedling Survivals and Growth of Trees in Degraded Lands of Southern Tigray

Gebru Eyasu Siyum, Tuemay Tassew, Abadi Gidey

Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ajraf/2019/v4i130053

Tree planting on degraded lands play a key role in forest rehabilitation processes through afforestation and/or reforestation. Moisture harvesting structures (MHSs) has significant impact on seedling survivals at degraded lands. The objectives of this study were to investigate the impact of water harvesting techniques on seedling survival and growth performance of trees. Field experiments were conducted for two rainy seasons in southern Tigray, Atsela watershed. The experimental design followed was the split plot design. The MHSs as main plot used were eye-brow basins (EBs), micro trench (MTs), improved pit (IPs) and as control normal pit (NPs). The tree species grown as subplots were Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Grevillea robusta, Olea europaea and Cupressus lusitanica. The four tree species were planted by using seedlings. The tree survival rate, height, crown width (CW) and root collar diameter (RCD) of the four tree species were measured every six months after transplanting. The result shows that MHSs were significant in tree seedling height, CW and RCD but not in tree survival rate. Tree seedling height and CW grown in EBs were significantly higher than those grown in MTs, IPs and NP (P≤0.05). RCD of tree seedling was higher when grown in EBs than NP (control) (P≤0.05). The interaction of tree species seedlings and MHSs shows that those seedlings grown on MHSs were significantly thicker, taller and more survived than those grown on the NPs (control) (P≤0.05). So based on the experiments, it is concluded that MHSs particularly the eyebrow basin was considered as the most appropriate planting pit. Therefore, further demonstration of eyebrow basin tree planting should be carried out.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Comparative Study of the Daily Activity Patterns of Dog Faced Baboon (Papio anubis) in Captivity at the Kano University Zoo and Kano Zoological Garden

Isah Suleiman Dutse, Mohammed Musa Yahaya, D. O. Oshibanjo, Dan`azumi Danboyi Daya

Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ajraf/2019/v4i130054

Aim: This study seeks to observed the daily activity patterns of dog faced baboon (Papio anubis) in Kano University of Science and Technology Wudil Zoo and Kano Zoological Garden.

Materials and Methods: The study was carried out daily between 6:00am to 6:00pm from December 2016 to January 2017. Digital camera was also attached to cages at the two sites. The observation in the activity patterns were recorded on recording sheet, observation is done three times a week at 20 minutes intervals.

Results: The findings on activity pattern of dog faced baboon (Papio anubis) in captivity shows that the day time activities decrease from morning to evening. Resting activities was 47.5%, movement and feeding were carried out in the morning, followed by afternoon and evening with 33.3% and 19.1% activities respectively. The results from the  Kano Zoological Garden, indicated that 42.7% of the activities perform by dog faced baboon in captivity are resting, this is followed by movement which accounted for 34.9% of the activities, while feeding activities account for the least with 22.4%. Similarly, about 43.2% of the recorded activities carried out by dog faced baboon in Kano University of Science and Technology Wudil, Zoo was resting, followed by movement which constituted 34.8% of the activities and feeding activity which accounted for 22%.

Conclusion: Due to the fact that majority of the baboons activities usually take place between morning and afternoon, it is recommended that visitors interested in baboons should plan their visitation to the Zoo pen during that time. It is also recommended that feeding and harassing of animals by the visitors should be discouraged in order to ensure consistency in their behaviour.