Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Seed Size on the Germination and Early Growth of African Baobab (Adansonia digitata L.)

J. I. Amonum, F. Sumaduniya, T. O. Amusa

Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ajraf/2020/v6i230099

The effects of seed size on the germination and early growth of A. digitata were assessed. Seeds were sourced locally within the University of Ilorin Campus. One hundred viable seeds were selected from each of the size classes. The seed weight, length, breadth, and width were measured for all the selected seeds. Mean weight, length, breadth, and thickness were: 0.62 g, 9.16 mm, 7.45 mm, and 5.85 mm, respectively for small seeds. 0.41 g, 9.54 mm, 7.68 mm, and 6.03 mm, respectively for medium seeds; and 0.44 g, 9.92 mm, 7.89 mm, and 6.21 mm, respectively for large seeds. The experiment was laid out in a completely randomized design (CRD). Seed dormancy was broken through the acid scarification method by soaking in H2SO4 at 70% concentration for 20 minutes with constant stirring. Variables of interest include: leaves number, seedlings height, collar diameter and leaf area. Based on the results of this finding, medium and large seeds germinated in 7 days after sowing while small seeds germinated in 10 days after sowing. Large seeds had the highest germination percentage (55%), followed by medium seeds with 27%. The small seeds were the least in terms of germination rate (21%). There was no significant difference in mean seedling heights, collar diameters and number of leaves among the seed size classes (P˃0.05). Mean leaf area significantly differed among the three size classes (P˂0.05). The result showed that large seeds gave best germination at a shorter period than the medium and small seed sizes. Thus, large seeds of A. digitata are recommended in propagation activities involving the species.

Open Access Original Research Article

Trees Mensuration in Forestry and Wildlife Nursery Plantation University of Maiduguri Campus, Borno State, Nigeria

M. R. Umar

Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry, Page 8-20
DOI: 10.9734/ajraf/2020/v6i230100

A study was conducted at the premises of Faculty of Agriculture, Forestry and Wildlife Nursery Plantation University of Maiduguri situated in Sahel Savannah ecological zone of Nigeria. The area is hot and dry for a greater part of the year. The vegetation is typically Sahel Savannah consisting of mainly grasses with few drought resistance trees, total counting was used in other to obtain appropriately result of the measurements. The research was aimed at determine the optimum level growth of trees, assessment of different parameters and volume of trees and ascertain used to reduced environmental desertification. The species of trees assessed were Neem, Khaya and Gmelina, the measurement taken were DBH, Basal Area, Total height, Merchantable height, Bole height, Crown depth having mean values of 21.42 m, 404.73 m2, 9.24 m, 1.71 m, 1.74 m and 7.5 m for Neem, khaya: 6.69 m, 35.27 m2, 4.53 m, 1.91 m, 2.69 m and 2.87 m. Gmelina: 27.58 m, 599.61 m2, 10.93 m, 1.69 m, 2.40 m and 8.58 m respectively and volumes for Neem, Khaya and Gmelina were 34.20 m3, 19.87 m3 and 30.03 m3 respectively. From the result obtained, it was observed that Azadiracta grow higher and has larger volume than other species, followed by Gmelina and Khaya in terms of volumes. In terms of mean DBH, Basal Area, Total height, Merchantable height, Bole height and crown dept obtained on the tree species Gmelina has the highest in terms of the determination of the measured followed by Neem and Khaya obtained from the results. There is need for World Bank to partner Nigerian Government and with forestry and wildlife department for the inventory of specific trees within the sub-region and also highlight the public to grow specific tree to reduce desertification within the savannah region of the Nigerian. This indicates that Azadiracta indica (Neem) species grow very well in region for afforestation also Khaya and Gmelina are used as anti-desertification control properties and as a good Carbon-dioxide Sink.

Open Access Original Research Article

Wheat Variety Improvement for Climate Resilience

Ramesh Raj Puri, Santosh Tripathi, Rudra Bhattarai, Sangharash Raj Dangi, Deepak Pandey

Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry, Page 21-27
DOI: 10.9734/ajraf/2020/v6i230101

High temperature stress unfavorably affects plant growth and reduces grain yield (GY). This study was conducted with an aim to identify the terminal heat tolerance of one hundred and two wheat genotypes with three checks. They were sown under normal (non-stress) and late (stress) conditions at Regional Agricultural Research Station (RARS), Tarahara; RARS, Nepalgunj and National Wheat Research Program (NWRP), Bhairahawa, Nepal. The trial was sown in Augmented design during 2014/15 winter season as a Nepal heat tolerance wheat screening nursery (NHTWSN). Grain yield, maturity, stress susceptibility and tolerant indices were estimated to assess the heat tolerance of the genotypes. Combined analysis among the tested wheat lines (102 new entries + 3 checks) showed that KACHU//KIRITATI/WBLL1 ((Heat tolerance index (HTI) = 1.78) possessed the highest level of heat tolerance, followed by SLVS  /3/ CROC_1/ AE.SQUARROSA (224)// OPATA/5/ VEE/LIRA//BOW/3/BCN/4/KAUZ/6/ 2*KA/NAC//TRCH (HTI=1.57) while SUP152/VILLA JUAREZ F2009 (HTI=0.83) appeared to be the least heat tolerant. Correlation analysis showed that yield under stress environment had positive (r=0.083) and significant (p<0.05) association with that of non-stress environment. Grain yield (Kg/ha) under both environments had significant positive correlation with mean productivity (MP), geometric mean productivity (GMP) and HTI. Thirty seven wheat genotypes possessing heat tolerance will be considered in further heat tolerance trial and can also be used directly in varietal development and in the crossing program to breed more heat tolerant genotypes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Adoption of Agroforestry Practices by Arable Farmers in Igabi Local Government Area of Kaduna State, Nigeria

O. N. Oladele, U. U. Emeghara, B. F. Ishola, J. T. Ayodele, T. A. Awobona, O. Olukotun

Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry, Page 28-37
DOI: 10.9734/ajraf/2020/v6i230102

The study examined the level of adoption of agroforestry practices among arable farmers in Igabi Local Government Area of Kaduna State, Nigeria. Data was collected from 100 randomly selected farmers with the use of structured questionnaire. The questionnaire focused on socio-economic characteristics of the farmers, level of adoption of agroforestry practices, types of agroforestry practices adopted, factors influencing the willingness of farmers to adopt agroforestry practices and constraints faced by the farmers in adopting agroforestry-based farming. Data was analysed using frequency, percentage, mean and probit model. The study found that male (78.00%) dominated farming activities in the study area, the majority (96.00%) of the farmers is in the age group of 21-60 years, most of the farmers (87.00%) are educated and the majority (76.00%) of them had more than 5 years farming experience. The study revealed that the adoption of agroforestry practices is high (79.00%) in the study areas. Retention of trees on farmland was mostly adopted (31.00%) while shifting cultivation is the least adopted (5.00%) agroforestry practice in the study area. The result of the probit model analysis showed that farm size (1.1122), farming experience (0.0231) and access to credit (0.1103) were the factors that significantly influence farmers’ willingness to adopt agroforestry practices at 10.00% probability level in the study area. However the level of adoption of agroforestry practices in the study area was hampered by constraints such as high capital intensive nature of agroforestry practices (87.00%), poor extension service (80.00%), inadequate capital (77.00%), poor technical know-how of agroforestry practices (45.00%), land tenure system (36.00%) and lack of access to credit (13.00%). The study suggests that to enhance the adoption level of agroforestry practices among farmers in the study area, improved agroforestry extension services should be provided to farmers; workshops, seminars and symposia should be organized for adequate training of farmers to understand the techniques of agroforestry; and farmers should be encouraged to form cooperative societies so that they can have access to credit facility to boost their capital.

Open Access Original Research Article

Domestication of Wild Fruit Trees in Communities of Mayo-Belwa LGA, Adamawa State, Nigeria

M. R. Umar, F. D. Nyako

Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry, Page 38-50
DOI: 10.9734/ajraf/2020/v6i230103

The study was carried out to assess the domestication of wild fruit trees in communities of Mayo-Belwa LGA of Adamawa State, Nigeria. Seven wards within the LGA (Tola, Mayo-Fareng, Binyeri, Gangfada, Gorobi, Gangwaso and Nasarawo Jereng) were selected for Agroforestry. 14 farms from each of the selected wards were randomly sampled and surveyed for observation and recording of indigenous fruit trees on the farms and also by ocular inspecting the proportion of farm land under fruit trees cultivation. Results shows that preference matrix ranking was used to generate a species priority list of indigenous fruit trees preferred by the local people through the use of questionnaire. Descriptive statistics such as table, frequencies and percentages were used to analyse the data obtained which includes, proportion of indigenous fruit trees DBH ranging (10.1-45.1), basal area ranging (80.1-1597.8), agricultural crops grown alongside fruit trees, local people towards wild fruit trees domestication, socio-economic variables of the respondents, and opportunities and constraints to on-farm cultivation of indigenous fruit trees. The result of the findings indicated that indigenous fruit trees species on-farm was relatively moderate:- The average proportion of farmland under indigenous fruit trees DBH was however low in Gorobi ward and higher in Binyeri ward. Some of the preferred indigenous wild fruit trees were Vitallaria paradoxa, Vitex doniana, Annona senegalensis and Tamarindus indica among others. The study recommended that in order for indigenous fruit trees to meaningfully contribute to household food security and incomes, there is need to: Formulate clear policies and by-laws on conservation of indigenous tree resources. Trees are assets, which contribute to the well-being of the rural community and through their longevity, serve as a cultural linking element throughout generations. Policy-makers and decision-makers also need to be kept informed of the latest advances in domestication and commercialization.