Open Access Original Research Article

Growth and Development of Rare Tree Species Sterculia villosa Linn. in Districts, Meerut and Bulandshahr, U.P., India

Yashwant Rai, Prashant Kumar, Shikha Rajput, Poonam Paliwal

Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ajraf/2020/v6i430109

The present study was carried out in Districts Meerut and Bulandshahr from May 2014 to September 2019. The mature, dried and healthy seeds of Sterculia villosa were collected from Katarniaghat wildlife sanctuary, District Bahraich, Uttar Pradesh. A total of 100 seeds were sown in 10 pots containing mixture of soil: manure 3:1 ratio. The germination started seven days after sowing in the month of May. The total germination percentages were observed 80% within 21 days. 12 Months, old saplings were transplanting into the areas of Meerut and Bulandshahr. The results indicate that the status of germination, saplings growth and development of all stages of Sterculia villosa is fairly rapid. I had recorded 6 years old growth of Sterculia villosa 249 cm. in botanical garden of C.C.S. university Meerut. It is concluded that the aim of the present study is to spread awareness towards the conservation and established of the rare beautiful tree species Sterculia villosa in Meerut and Bulandshahr districts. The study benefited to biodiversity and silviculture in those areas, where the species is now not found.

Open Access Original Research Article

Awareness on Drudgery Reducing Farm Technologies for Gender Equity

V. Vijaya Lakshmi, J. Deepika

Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry, Page 9-19
DOI: 10.9734/ajraf/2020/v6i430110

Agriculture in India is moving away from animal driven to machine driven. Apart from tractors and power weeders which are used by farmers, there are farm tools and implements that can be used by farm women to reduce their drudgery with increased productivity. The present study made an attempt in introducing the set of 14 drudgery reducing farm tools and implements i.e. sapling transplanter, sickle/kurpi, long handle weeders, three types of harvest bags, ring cutter, finger guards, milking stand cum stool, head load manager, seed cum fertilizer bag, seed placement tube and fertilizer broad caster. A capacity building training programme was conducted to the farm women for exposure about the improved set of farm tools and implements. The implements were given to village secretary for use of this equipment by a group of 50 farm women and data were collected from them regarding the awareness about the technologies before and after the capacity building training programmes. Adoption levels were assessed after completion of a crop season. It was found that partial awareness was there about the improved equipment before training and cent per cent awareness was in the random selected group after the training programs. About 62 per cent of the sample has moderately adopted the given technologies. The study indicated for educating the farmers about the importance of drudgery reducing technologies, training them in using the farm implements and providing them to have an easy accessibility to enhance the adoption level. Custom hiring centres can be the solution to house the improved technologies suitable for farm women so that they can be used on rotation basis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Utilization of Parkia biglobosa Leaves as Green Manure for the Fertilization of Maize (Zea mays L.) in Southern Nigeria

Kehinde Oladoke Olatunji, Oyetola Ogunkunle, Cecilia Moses

Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry, Page 20-28
DOI: 10.9734/ajraf/2020/v6i430111

Aim: To investigate the use of Parkia biglobosa leaves as a source of organic nutrients for maize production.

Place and Duration of Study: The field experiment was carried out at the research field of the Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, Lagos State Field Office, Nigeria during the early planting season (March/April) of 2018.

Methodology: A field research was carried out to compare the growth and yield of maize when Parkia biglobosa leaves and inorganic fertilizer were used as nutrients sources. Four factorial treatments combinations of Parkia biglobosa leaves, NPK fertilizer, combined Parkia biglobosa leaves and NPK fertilizer, and a control experiment was ordered in a Randomized Complete Block Design with four replicates. The plants height, number of leaves and surface areas were recorded at 3, 6 and 9 weeks after planting while the maize yields were considered at the end of the experiment.

Results: The study showed that the treatment with the combination of Parkia biglobosa leaves and inorganic fertilizer produced the highest indexes of plant tallness, foliage number and surface areas.  Maize yields of 2816.66, 2700, 2316.66 and 1566.66 kg/ha were recorded from treatments with Parkia biglobosa leaves and inorganic fertilizer combination, inorganic fertilizer, Parkia biglobosa leaves and the control experiment, respectively.

Conclusion: These results reflected that the incorporated effect of Parkia biglobosa leaves and inorganic fertilizer at the rate of 50:50 gives the best maize growth and yield index.

Open Access Original Research Article

Tree Diversity in Urban Parks and Gardens of Ibadan City, Nigeria

O. S. Olokeogun, A. O. Oladoye, A. F. Aderounmu

Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry, Page 29-40
DOI: 10.9734/ajraf/2020/v6i430112

Aims: To assess the species diversity of trees in parks and gardens across the urban area of the city of Ibadan.

Study Design: Total enumeration was conducted for data collection; All the trees in the urban parks and gardens were identified. The species similarity and diversity of trees were computed.

Place and Duration of Study: Parks and gardens within the urban area of Ibadan city, Nigeria, Department of Forestry Technology, Federal College of Forestry, Ibadan, Nigeria, Department of Forestry and Wildlife Management, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria, between April, 2019 and March, 2020.

Methodology: The parks and gardens were identified on google earth image. The species and family of all the trees within the parks and gardens were identified. The density, species richness, relative abundance, similarity, diversity and evenness were also estimated. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index, Simpson’s diversity index, and Pielou’s species evenness index were used in estimating the species diversity.

Results: The findings reveal a significant species composition of 82 species distributed across 34 families, with Senna sesame and Fabaceae being the most abundant species and family respectively. The trees with a population of 2,471 trees are largely dominated by exotic and evergreen species. The species richness, similarity, and diversity were relatively high.

Conclusion: The study provides an opportunity to evaluate the contribution of urban parks and gardens to the ecological integrity and health of a city, thereby serving as essential information for preparing workable conservation strategies.

Open Access Original Research Article

Factors Influencing Fertilizer Usage by Medium and Large Scale Coconut Farmers in Gampaha District, Sri Lanka

S. D. N. M. Senadheera, A. M. K. R. Bandara, A. I. Y. Lankapura

Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry, Page 41-47
DOI: 10.9734/ajraf/2020/v6i430113

Aims: This study attempts to identify the factors affecting the usage of fertilizer by medium- and large-scale coconut farmers in the Gampaha District, Sri Lanka with a view to recommend pragmatic strategies to increase coconut production in Sri Lanka.

Study Design: Multistage quota sampling with a proportion allocation method.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted during the year 2017 in the Gampaha administrative district, which is a leading coconut-producing region, under the coconut triangle of Sri Lanka. 

Methodology: Both primary and secondary data were utilized in the study. Descriptive analytical techniques, factor analysis, and Binary Logistic Regression techniques were used in the data analysis.

Results: The factor analysis disclosed five-factor groups that cumulatively explain 55% of the total variation. Binary Logistic Regression revealed that the prevalence of favorable weather patterns, usage of supplementary materials, availability of credit facilities, and organic fertilizer application significantly affect the application of inorganic fertilizer for coconut cultivation. The availability of a fertilizer subsidy, practicing moisture conservation, practicing animal husbandry, and applying inorganic fertilizer significantly determined the application of organic fertilizer for coconut cultivation. Usage of supplementary materials, yield of the last coconut picking, and household size significantly affected the fertilizer application for coconut cultivation in general.

Conclusion: Prevalence of favorable weather patterns, supplementary materials, and credit usage increase the chance of applying inorganic fertilizer for coconut. Organic fertilizer application decreases the likelihood of applying inorganic fertilizer for coconut.  Availability of a fertilizer subsidy, practicing moisture conservation, practicing animal husbandry increase the chance of applying organic fertilizer for coconut, whilst the inorganic fertilizer application decreases the likelihood of applying organic fertilizer for coconut.

Open Access Original Research Article

Profitability of Trade in Moringa oleifera (LAM) Fresh Leaves in Taraba State, Nigeria

Lobiya, John Kassa, Ancha, Paul Ukper, Tee, Terver Norbert

Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry, Page 48-57
DOI: 10.9734/ajraf/2020/v6i430115

This study investigates the profitability of trade in Moringa oleifera (Lam) Fresh Leaves and also examine the Socio-economic characteristics of Traders in Taraba State, between June, 2018 and May, 2019. Applying a multistage Sampling approach, 342 and 97 traders were randomly selected and administered with questionnaire in the wet and dry seasons respectively, to elicit data, which were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The results on the socio-economic variables showed that female traders (94.7%), age class 31-40 (36.3%), Married (65.5%), Household size of 8 members and above (69.6%) and non-formal education (51.8%) featured dominantly in moringa fresh leaves trade. Furthermore, Gross Margin (GM) analysis showed that the monthly income from Moringa oleifera (Lam) fresh leaves was highest (N372.50 ± 125.15) in Ibi Local Government Area (LGA), while Bali LGA had the least GM of (N 88.83 ± 91.40) in the wet season. In the dry season, Gashaka LGA had the highest GM of N 228.00 (± 78.55), while Jalingo LGA was the least with GM of N 57.50 (± 86.68). The comparison of GM and Quantity of leaves sold (QLS) in the dry and rainy seasons were not significantly different. The Rate of Returns on Investment (RORI), Gross Margin Index (GMI) and Unit Price (UP) in the rainy and dry seasons were significantly at 0.05 level of probability. It is therefore recommended that Government and Non-government organisations (NGOs) should educate the traders on the marketing of Moringa oleifera leaves; Government and NGOs should also make loans available at one-digit rate; Government should put in place a security outfit to curtail the incessant crisis in Taraba; and traders should form cooperative society to access loans with the Bank of Industry through the Anchor Borrower scheme.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Coconut Water on Pre-Sowing Treatments Additive on Seed Germination and Initial Seedlings Growth Performance of Kamagong (Diospyros discolor)

Marne G. Origenes, Renato L. Lapitan

Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry, Page 58-71
DOI: 10.9734/ajraf/2020/v6i430116

Mabolo (Diospyros discolor), which is an indigenous species locally known as Kamagong, is popularly called “iron-wood”. With over-exploitation, these species are now threatened and are becoming extinct. Hence, it is the only way to conserved and save this economically valuable species by using nursery techniques with appropriate pre-sowing treatments. Therefore, the present study was attempted to evaluate the effect of coconut water on pre-sowing treatments additive on seed germination and initial growth performance of Kamagong (D. discolor). The seeds were extracted and subjected to the following treatments for 12 hours: Soaking in 100% water which is the control (T1), soaking with 50% of coconut water and 50% water (T2), and soaking in 100% coconut water (T3). The results showed that T3 had the highest germination mean value (78.33%), mean seedling height (11.80 cm) and mean number of leaves (2.04). By contrast, T2 (50% coconut water + 50% water) obtained the least germination mean value (76.67%), mean seedling height (11.63 cm) and mean number of leaves (2.00). However, there were no significant differences in the germination percentage, seedling height and number of leaves among all treatments at (p ≤ 0.05). The seeds subjected to T2 and T3 were significantly (p ≤ 0.05) better than seeds subjected to T1, having a mean root collar diameter (RCD) value of 3.98 mm, 3.75 mm and 3.48 mm, respectively. In terms of leaf measurements, the seedlings subjected to T2 and T3 had the highest leaf width value of 5.18 cm and 4.97 cm, respectively, whereas the seedlings subjected to T1 had the significantly lowest leaf width of 4.88 cm. Moreover, there was no significant effect among all treatments in terms of leaf and root length. Furthermore, it was observed in the study that fungal pathogens should also be taken into account as the pathogens are associated with the reduction of the germination percentage of the D. discolor seeds. Also, the study found out that seeds treated with 50% and 100% coconut water positively influenced the germination and initial seedling growth performance of D. discolor.

Open Access Original Research Article

Collection and Processing of Non-timber Forest Products in North Eastern Pakistan of Azad Jammu and Kashmir: An Empirical Study

Muhammad Zubair, Ahmad Nawaz Ansari, Syed Bilal Hussain

Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry, Page 72-79
DOI: 10.9734/ajraf/2020/v6i430117

Himalayan region has diversity of Non-Timber Forest Products and is considered as biodiversity hotspot. Current research is baseline study providing information on extraction and processing of Non-Timber Forest Products especially medicinal plants in North Eastern Pakistan of Azad Jammu and Kashmir. A total of 60 respondents (local collectors) were selected based on snowball sampling procedure. Results revealed that income generation remained the prime reason for collection of Non-Timber Forest Products in both regions and collectors have to travel up to 4-6km for collection. Most (i.e.,91%) of the respondents collected Non-Timber Forest Products for medicinal reasons in Bagh District whereas vegetable collection (i.e.,86%) is the prime reason for collection in Neelam valley. Non-Timber Forest Products are mostly collected manually during summer for 6-10 hours with frequency of 1-3 times in a season. It was also observed that most of the respondents in Bagh district opted for sun drying whereas sun and shade drying remained a preference of respondents in Neelam valley. It was concluded that a public-private partnership is inevitable for sustainable harvesting, processing and marketing of Non-Timber Forest Products in the region.