Open Access Original Research Article

Alleviation of Salt-Induced Adverse Effects on Gas Exchange, Photosynthetic Pigments Content and Chloroplast Ultrastructure in Gerbera Jamesonii L. by Exogenous Salicylic Acid Application

Kapila Kumara, A. D. Ampitiyawatta, Adithya Padmaperuma, Chalinda Beneragama, Xia Yi Ping

Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/ajraf/2021/v7i230123

Aims: The effects of exogenously applied salicylic acid (SA) on gas exchange characteristics, photosynthetic pigments and chloroplast ultrastructure were investigated in gerbera at their reproductive stage under salt-stressed conditions.

Methodology: A pot experiment was conducted under glasshouse conditions at the Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China, (30° N/120° E) between February 2008 and March 2009.Plants, pretreated with foliar applications of 0, 0.5, and 1.0 mmoldm-3 SA at the onset of flower initiation were irrigated with 100 mmoldm-3NaCl(aq) for two weeks, starting after three days from the SA pretreatment. Control did not receive either NaCl or SA.Photosynthetic rate, gas exchange, photosynthetic pigments content and chloroplast ultrastructure were investigated against treatments. All data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Generalized Linear Model (GLM) using SAS statistical software. Pearson’s correlation test was carried out to study the relationships among the parameters. The means were compared using Duncan’s multiple range test (DMRT). For all the tests, P< .05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: Salt stress adversely affected the gas exchange characteristics, photosynthetic pigment contents and chloroplast ultrastructure. SA application significantly increased the net photosynthesis, stomatal conductivity, intra-cellular CO2 content and transpiration rate but decreased the stomatal limitation, compared to those of untreated salt-stressed plants. Further, the enhanced photosynthetic pigment contents and notably undamaged chloroplast ultrastructure were evident of the ameliorative effects of SA on photosynthetic system under salt stress. Of the two concentrations tested, 0.5 mmoldm-3 SA concentration seemed to have greater effect throughout the experiment showing no significant variation from control in some attributes (chlorophyll contents and chloroplast ultrastructure).

Conclusion: Responses of plants pretreated with SA spraying and significant correlation among them plausibly suggest SA-induced enhancement of photosynthetic system as another target for conferring salt tolerance in crop plants.

Open Access Original Research Article

Socio-Economic Drivers for Farming Households’ Decision to Conserve Nature around Mount Uluguru, Tanzania

Shauri Timothy, Yohana James Mgale, Canute Hyandye

Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry, Page 14-21
DOI: 10.9734/ajraf/2021/v7i230124

Nature conservation means preservation or restoration of the environment and wildlife. The activity is just beyond someone's will; it is highly influenced by socio-economic factors. This study examined the drivers for farming households to conserve the nature around Mount Uluguru in Morogoro, Tanzania. A survey was conducted in five villages around the Arc Uluguru Mountain, and only 106 respondents were randomly selected. To supplement the information, focus group discussions were held with village leaders and environmental committee members in each village who gave their precious information for analysis. Descriptive analysis was done using frequencies, percentage, and mean for examining characteristics of the sampled population, while the binary logistic model was used to analyze the factors that drive farmers to participate in nature conservation. It was found that farming experience, access to support services and awareness in bylaws and regulations increase the chances of participating in environmental conservation amongst the household members. Also, being a male individual and having old age decreases the chances of engagement to nature conservation activities. The study recommends that, in conservation activities, gender roles should be taken into consideration, as anyone can take charge and participate in nature conservation. Furthermore, more training, materials, and equipment are needed from governmental and NGO’s to help nature conservation in Mount Uluguru.

Open Access Original Research Article

Indigenous Knowledge of Bamboo Products and uses in the Western Highlands of Cameroon

Chimi Djomo Cédric, Barnabas Neba Nfornkah, Gadinga Walter Forje, Awazi Nyong Princely, Kaam Réné, Nguefack Arnold Jovis, Tatang Maurice, Atoupka Abdel Malik, Zambou Gansonkeng Jessica Cyntia, Tabue Mbobda Roger Bruno, Inimbock Sorel Léocadie, Zapfack Louis

Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry, Page 22-30
DOI: 10.9734/ajraf/2021/v7i230125

Introduction: Today, bamboo is a resource frequently used by local people for their wellbeing and rural development in poor localities.

Aims: This study aimed at identifying the ecosystem services offered by bamboo to the local population for their wellbeing.

Duration and Place of Study: The study was carried out in January to February 2021 in Western highlands Agro ecological zone of Cameroon; more precisely in areas with high bamboo density according to literature review.

Methodology: Three hundred and ten (310) questionnaires were administered to persons involved in bamboo activities including a direct observation in the field. This was complemented with key informant interviews.

Results: The results showed that bamboo is highly utilized for subsistence purposes in many households in the Western Highlands of Cameroon, with at least 97 bamboo uses and products identified. These uses/products were grouped into 11 sectors/domains making use of bamboo. Agriculture, silviculture, handicrafts, furniture and house construction are the sectors using more bamboo products. Only 5% of respondents used bamboo in more than 10 sectors/domains.

Conclusion: This baseline survey presents results which could orientate decisions of Policymakers and Development planners on how bamboo products could be valorized in the Western Highlands.

Open Access Original Research Article

Preliminary Floristic Inventory of the Swamp Forest of Atan Ukwok Village in Ini L.G.A of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

Margaret Emmanuel Bassey, Omodot Timothy Umoh, Mercy Etim Jonah

Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry, Page 31-41
DOI: 10.9734/ajraf/2021/v7i230126

The Floristic inventory of the swamp forest at Atan Ukwok was carried out using the Systematic and Transect Sampling Methods where the line transect was the main path of the forest and Sampling units were chosen along the path at a distance of 14m × 14m and 6 sampling plots were sampled. The frequency, density and abundance of the identified species were calculated using standard formulae. A total number of 61 species from 35 families were identified. The number of species recorded for the plant families were, Cyperaceae 5, Euphorbiaceae 4, Acanthaceae, Apocynaceae, Asteraceae, Aspidiaceae and Poaceae 3 each, Arecaceae, Caesalpiniaceae, Mimosaceae, Melastomataceae, Schizaceae, Thelypteridaceae and Verbanaceae 2 each and Athyriaceae, Costaceae, Dioscoreaceae, Dracaenaceae Gleicheniaceae Araceae, Davillianaceae, Malvaceae, Commelinaceae, Clusiaceae, Selaginellaceae, Combretaceae, Convolvulaceae, Colchicaceae, Fabaceae, Moraceae, Malvaceae, Lycopodiaceae and Rutaceae 1 each. The highest species frequency and density of 66.7% and 9.5% respectively was found in Setaria megaphylla and the highest abundance value of 50.0 was found in Dracaena arborea. The frequency percentage of the plant species showed that the forest is fast loosing vegetation due to the obvious encroachment of parts of it by the inhabitants of the community for the purpose of cultivation. This calls for concerted conservation measures in order to ensure the sustainable use of the floral diversity of the forest. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Meta-analysis of Technical Efficiency in Selected Agricultural Sub-sectors: Implications for Policy Making in Developing Countries like Sri Lanka

S. M. P. Senevirathne, M. H. S. M. Hettiarachchi, R. P. W. A. Dilrukshi, G.D. Kapila Kumara, A. D. Ampitiyawatta, C. K. Beneragama

Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry, Page 42-57
DOI: 10.9734/ajraf/2021/v7i230127

Aims: To evaluate the technical efficiency (TE) in selected agricultural sub-sectors and to propose possible policy interventions to the government with the aim of reducing the poverty of farmers in the developing world.

Study design: A meta-analysis based on empirical studies conducted by various scientists throughout the developing world.

Methodology: Research articles for the meta-analysis were selected using a thorough screening process based on the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses) concept. Selected 94 articles were sub-divided in to three main agriculture sub-sectors for detailed analysis; (a) paddy, other field crops-OFC and vegetables, (b) fruits, and (c) livestock. Mean TE of each crop or livestock type was calculated by averaging the TE values for a particular crop or livestock type across different studies included in this study.

Results: TE data presented in the original articles showed a considerable dispersion within a given study. The highest mean TE was recorded in B-onion (0.83±0.15) whereas the lowest was recorded in maize (0.703±0.09) and in soybean (0.705±0.13). The TE of chili cultivation was 0.78 with the greatest variability (standard error of mean [SEM] 0.19) among the crops considered, which signifies the unpredictable nature of the chili cultivation. Mango was found to be the least technically efficient crop among the studied, with a mean TE of 0.596±0.11. Dairy, poultry and aquaculture farming operations were found to be highly technically efficient having mean TE values of 0.80±0.16, 0.89±0.02 and 0.88±0.08 respectively.

Conclusion: Findings of this study will lead to several key policy implications including, improvement of the socioeconomic characteristics of farmers, implementation of farmer field schools (FFS) and establishment of a cautious and gradual strategy for expansion of the rural financial institutions.