Open Access Policy Article

Awareness and Contribution of African Indigenous Leafy Vegetables to Household Wellbeing: A Case of Smallholder Farmers in Kisii County, Kenya

Edhaline Cherotich Soo, Lawrence Kibet, Benjamin K. Mutai

Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry, Page 48-56
DOI: 10.9734/ajraf/2021/v7i330132

This study investigated the contribution of African Indigenous Leafy Vegetables (AILVs) to the welfare of smallholder farmers in Kisii County. AILVs have recently been attracting research attention not only in terms of their inherent nutrition quality and healing properties but also for their economic potential that is brought about by increased consumer demand of these vegetables. Despite having multiple benefits and positive promise towards contributing to household food dietary quality and income, utilization of African indigenous Leafy Vegetables (AILVs) by farming households is still low as indicated by a constant deficit in supply. Based on the claimed benefits in the face of low volumes in terms of utilization, this study sought to examine the socioeconomic characteristics of AILVs smallholders and factors that influence production of these vegetables in Bomachoge Borabu Sub-County, Kisii County Kenya. A Multistage sampling method was used to obtain a sample of 150 AILV farmers. Questionnaires were used to collect the data. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the socio-economic characteristics while Tobit model was utilized in analyzing the factors that influence production of AILVs. The Tobit regression results indicated that age, gender, education, value awareness, occupation and household income significantly influenced AILV production. The study concluded that engagement in AILVs utilization brings along unmatched benefits. The study recommends a long term campaign majorly targeting the young and the non-growing communities in creation of value awareness to improve on the utilization of the vegetables. The study also recommends a similar study in regions of the Country that record low levels of utilization.

Open Access Original Research Article

Characterization of Diameter Distribution and Prediction of Weibull Parameters Equation for Plantation-grown Eucalyptus Species

M. G. Saka

Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/ajraf/2021/v7i330128

Aim: To characterization of the diameter distribution and prediction of Weibull parameters of a plantation-grown Eucalyptus species.

Study design: Stratified sampling method was adopted, in which the plantation was stratified into four age series.

Place and duration of study: Afaka Forest Reserve, one month.

Methodology: Fifty (50) sample plots of 20 x 20 m were laid across the age series. In each of the plot, all the trees were counted and data of variable of interest was collected and processed. A separate Weibull distribution is fitted to the diameter at breast height (dbh) frequency data from each of the plot for the estimation of Weibull parameters (location, scale and shape). The data set obtained from the Weibull parameter estimate was then used to develop regression equations with the stand variables. Coefficient of Determination (R2) and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) was used as goodness of fit test.

Results: The result on the stand characteristics revealed that, the mean diameter at breast height (dbh) ranges between 13.4 – 18.2 cm across the four stands. This indicates that the species are still of pole sizes. The average site productivity of the species ranges between 24.0 m to 37 m at an index of 25 years. The mean Basal area varies between 14.13 to 26.85 m2 per ha, while the average tree total height ranges between 24.6 to 28.2 m across the four species. The result on diameter class distribution shows that most of the species fell within dbh class of 11 -20 cm class except E. cloeziana in which the highest frequency fell into 16 – 20cm dbh class. Best equation were selected for each of the Weibull parameters (α, β, ) per species based on fit statistics. The formation of straight line pattern from the plotted normal probability plots indicates the adequacy of the selected models for predicting Weibull parameters. A fluctuation pattern exists between the Weibull parameters and the stand characteristics. this may be due to variation in climatic factor, most especially fluctuations in rainfall pattern in the area at that particular period.

Conclusion: The ease of fit and high value of coefficient of determination of the models in this study has re-affirmed the use of Weibull parameter in prediction of stand characteristics as been suggested by many authors in the literature.

Open Access Original Research Article

Geospatial Application in Forest Reserves Distribution and Sawmills Proximity as a Major Sources of Timber Product in Ibadan and Ibarapa Divisions, Oyo State, Southwest Nigeria

Fatunmibi Olugbemiga, Adewuyi, Gbola Kehinde

Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry, Page 14-26
DOI: 10.9734/ajraf/2021/v7i330129

The proximity to forest reserves has been considered one of the major factors affecting the spatial distribution of timber based industries. This study assesses the spatial distribution of forest reserves and sawmills in Ibadan and Ibarapa divisions, Oyo State, Nigeria. Existing map of forest reserves of Oyo State and Oyo State shape file was used. The primary data included the geographical coordinates of locations of all existing and functioning sawmills in Ibadan and Ibarapa divisions and this was acquired with Handheld Global Positioning System (eTrex Garmin 30x). The base maps were georeferenced in ArcGIS 10.2 using the coordinates of the base map and the area covered by each forest reserve was digitized. The distance from each sawmill to the nearest forest was determined to ascertain their proximity. The results shows that the forest reserves in Ibadan division covered a total of 47,874.691 hectares of land while a total of 59,011.146 hectares were accounted for the Ibarapa division. From Ibadan division, Ijaiye forest reserve has the highest area of land of 25,544.856 ha (53.36%) and Eleyele forest reserve has the least 526.092 ha (1.10%). Igangan with highest forest reserve of 40,643.885 ha (68.87%) from Ibarapa division, and Eruwa forest reserve has the least 7,488.207 ha (12.69%). Generally from the study area, twenty-one (21) sawmills were visited and recorded in all the forestry zones. Four (4) forest reserves are in Ibadan and three (3) in Ibarapa divisions. The travel distance from sawmills to the nearest forest reserve in Ibadan; Gambari, Osho and Eleyele forest reserves was within 5-15km while other are far. It can be concluded that, more sawmills is needed in the study area like Ijaiye, Lanlate as the travel distance of sawmills to the forest reserves is far and this may cause high price in the price of timbers and other forest products.

Open Access Original Research Article

Contribution of Non-Timber Forest Products Bitter Kola, Njangsang and Palm Wine to the Income of Marketers in the Mifi Division of the West Region of Cameroon

E. P. F. Essouman, L. F. Temgoua, D. A. B. Simo

Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry, Page 27-37
DOI: 10.9734/ajraf/2021/v7i330130

The objective of the study is to contribute to the promotion of NTFPs (Bitter kola, Njangsang and palm wine) by assessing their contribution to the income of marketers in the Mifi division. The study was carried out in the Mifi division in the West Region of Cameroon between January and May 2020. Respondents were drawn from a cross-section of marketers. Data was collected through the administration of semi-structure questionnaires and interview guide as well as direct observations. 81 persons involved in the economic sector in five main markets were identified during the reconnaissance survey, of which 65 were interviewed accounting for 80.24%. Data analysis was carried out using descriptive statistics for processing quantitative data and to generate tables and graphs. Results revealed that every stratum of the community participates in the trade, but the main actors were of the middle age group (45 to 55 years old). Economic analysis revealed that measurement unites for NTFPs in various markets are not standardized and there is a high variation in price between period of abundance and period of scarcity. Wholesalers were able to make an annual benefit of 2 338 900 FCFA, 1 077 400 FCFA and 178 600 FCFA per person from palm wine, bitter kola and Njansang respectively. This benefit was related to the origin of products, thus, the proximity of the supply area of palm wine permitted the concerned persons to meet higher benefit. The benefit observed is this study still includes transportation cost, so in reality, the final benefit is a variable value due to the constant variation (usually little variation) of transportation cost depending on the means of transport. Nevertheless, NTFPs are of real contribution to the income of the Mifi division population, but the supply areas are out of the Mifi division and this implicates some constraints such as high transportation cost, seasonality of products and high variation of sale prices. There is a real need of domestication of species to promote their sustainable management in the actual context of climate change.

Open Access Original Research Article

Farmers’ Preferences for Farming Enclaves in Forest Reserves of South-West, Nigeria: A Discrete Choice Experiment

Oluwaseun A. Otekunrin, Alice T. Ademigbuji, Olutosin A. Otekunrin, Mojisola O. Kehinde

Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry, Page 38-47
DOI: 10.9734/ajraf/2021/v7i330131

Aims: Acquiring suitable land for agricultural purposes is a challenge for most prospective farmers in South-West, Nigeria. This makes them acquire lands in government-owned forest reserves with special contractual agreements. Therefore, we evaluate farmers’ preferences for selected attributes of farming enclaves in four hypothetical forest reserves in South-West, Nigeria.

Study Design:  An orthogonal main effects design was used to construct the choice sets used for preference elicitation.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in December, 2017 in randomly selected communities of Oluyole Local government area of Oyo State, South-West, Nigeria. 

Methodology: Focus group discussions and relevant literature search were conducted to identify the relevant attributes. Four hypothetical forest reserves were considered and the selected attributes were size of the farmland, type of cropping system and land rent fee per hectare. Multistage sampling techniques were used to select 100 farmers and data were collected via face-to- interview. Multinomial logit model was used to analyse the data and willingness to pay for each of the selected attributes was also calculated.

Results and Conclusion: We find that farmers value intercropping system the most. The coefficient of land rent fee (per hectare) is negative and significant implying that farmers obtain higher utility from very low land rent fees. They are willing to pay an extra 12.50 US Dollars land rent fees (per hectare) to have intercropping on a particular farming enclave while avoiding other enclaves with other cropping systems. Farm size and taungya do not contribute significantly to the farmers’ choice of farming enclave. These results will help forest reserve managers in formulating policies that will benefit farmers without jeopardising efficient management of forest resources.