Open Access Original Research Article

Tree Species Composition, Richness and Diversity in the Northern Guinea-Savanna Taraba State, Nigeria

O. O. Sobola, D. O. Oke, A. G. Adedayo, J. A. Olusola

Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ajraf/2021/v7i430133

The study investigated tree species composition, diversity and abundance in the Guinea savanna ecosystem, Taraba State, Nigeria. Three transects with a distance of 500 m apart were used for the study. Four sample plots of 25 m x 25 m size were laid in alternate positions along each transect at 250 m intervals. Identification of trees/shrubs was carried out in the forest reserves. Biodiversity indices such as; Shannon-Wiener diversity index, Species evenness, Simpson’s diversity index, Margalef’s richness index and Menhinick’s diversity index, were estimated at the end of the study. The result of floristic diversity assessment showed that the two forest reserves were able to conserve trees/shrubs species diversity. This was reflected by the value obtained for diversity indices for the two land use types: Shannon- Weinner (3.29, 3.08), species evenness (0.47, 0.49), Simpson (0.95, 0.93), Margalef (6.83, 6.49), Minhinck’s index (2.09, 1.79) for Sonkpa and Jabwanje forest reserves respectively. The density of fruit trees/shrubs encountered in the two forest reserves were (279, 414) which accounted for (47% and 56%) of the total woody population in Sonkpa and Jabwanje forest reserves respectively. Among the prominent fruit trees/shrubs encountered were Nauclea latifolia, Gardenia aqualla, Annona senegalensis, Prosopis africana, Vitellaria paradoxa, Vitex doniana, Strychnos innocua.  However, the absence of Irvingia gabonensis and lower density of Afzelia africana was an indication that some important species are already going to extinction while others are endangered.  Hence, the State government should, intensify the management of savanna forest by controlling the intensity of tree harvesting, stop illegal felling and encourage enrichment planting. Genetic improvement through germplasm collection and propagation studies should be carried out on the under exploited edible fruit species for genetically improved cultivars production.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Environmental Factors on Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) Yield in the City of Jerusalem Occupied, Palestine

Jehad M. H. Ighbareyeh

Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry, Page 12-24
DOI: 10.9734/ajraf/2021/v7i430134

Apricot is a deciduous perennial tree, which classified within to the Rosacea family, sensitive to climatic factors, and its production has an economic role for many countries of the world, including Palestine. Mean annual temperatures and precipitation were analyzed, using data from a meteorological station of Jerusalem, Palestine, which has recorded between the year (1993-2012), and with the same number of years of apricot production, knowing that production data were taken from the Palestinian Statistics Center for the mentioned period. On the other hand, we used Professor Salvador Ravers Martins' methodology to classify the Earth in the process of analyzing environmental factors, there are two aspects of the factors: The first is climatic, which is the amount of rain or precipitation, mean monthly temperature and soil water reserve, and the second factor is the bioclimatic, which is annual ombrothermic index, simple continentality index, compensated thermicity index, and water deficit. In conclusion, Jerusalem was adversely affected by mean monthly temperature, precipitation, compensated thermicity index, deficit water, annual ombrothermic index during (1997-2002 and 2007-2012), but positively influenced by soil water reserve on apricot production, during (1993-1997 and 2002-2007), with a great rate of the variance in axis F1 (98.8%), axis F2 (0.82%) and symmetrical plot axes F1and F2 (99.8%), when the correspondence analysis was applied. However, humid areas characterized by mild summers are the suitable region for apricot production and productivity, with a temperature ranging between 22-24°C, at which high quality production can be obtained, the amount of rain is between 600 - 800 mm annually. Final, environmental regions in the thermomediterranean and the Mesomediterranean, with simple continentality index is 17 - 22, annual ombrothermic index is 2.5, while the compensated thermicity index is about 250/420, to obtain the highest ideal production of apricots in Jerusalem, Palestine.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Some Drying Methods on the Quality of Dried Nigerian Onion Varieties

O. O. Oniya, A.B. Fashina, A.O. Adeiza, O. Ogunkunle

Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry, Page 25-49
DOI: 10.9734/ajraf/2021/v7i430135

This research aimed to study the effects of some drying methods on the qualities of dried Nigerian onion varieties. Sliced onion samples of 1.5kg from each variety were dried in the three dryers at varying pre-determined temperatures of 50, 60, and 70oC. At 50, 60, and 70oC, the electrically powered dryer dried red onion for 13.55, 12.10, and 10.30 h, dried white onion for 14.10, 12.25, and 10.55 h, and dried cream onion for 14.10, 13.15, and 11.35 h. The kerosene-powered dryer at 50, 60, and 70oC dried red onion for 14.45, 13.22, and 11.55 h, dried white onion for 14.50, 13.15, and 11.15 h, and dried cream onion for 14.25, 13.05, and 12.20 h. The solar dryer at 57oC dried red onion for 72.45, dried white onion for 72.20 h, and dried cream onion for 72.50 h. Therefore, using kerosene, solar, and electrically powered dryers significantly affects onion quality (constituents and flavor). However, the electrically powered dryer could attain the required temperature quickly and further maintained the temperature, which proved to be the best method for drying the onions at 70oC.

Open Access Original Research Article

Photosynthesis, Growth and Dry Biomass Production in Euglena gracilis Klebs as Affected by Three Growth Irradiance Levels

C. K. Beneragama, K. Goto, V. N. Kodithuwakkuge

Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry, Page 50-59
DOI: 10.9734/ajraf/2021/v7i430137

Aims: The research aimed to investigate the shade response of E. gracilis Klebs while making the irradiance a crucial factor for photosynthesis based physiological activities and its applicability for industrial level culture conditions.

Study Design: Euglena was cultured at three different light intensities of 30, 90, and 210 mol m-2s-1 photoautotrophically and axenically in modified Cramer-Meyer medium at 25 ˚C as batch cultures.

Methodology: The photosynthesis O2 evaluation of Euglena cultures was measured under exponential (EP), transitional (TP), and stationary phases (SP). The light compensation point (LCP), light saturation point (LSP), and dark respiration rate (DRR) were obtained. Cell volume and cell number in each culture were measured simultaneously. Cells were collected and obtained dry mass (DM) after drying aliquots at 80˚C. Specific growth rate (SGR) and relative growth rate (RGR) were calculated. Tests for homogeneity of variance were performed on all parameters and LSDs were used for the mean separation.

Results: In the TP, the lowest LCP was achieved in the higher light culture. The values of both the DRR and the LSP were the same as in EP. The DRR, LCP and LSP are lower in lower PFD cultures and decreased with increasing cell titers. The cellular growth levels were lower in lower light culture and decreased as each culture grew. Cellular DM was maintained constant in the EP, where SGR almost equaled RGR. In the EP, SGR was maintained constant in each culture, SGR displayed a saturation phenomenon. In the later TP, SGR became equal to RGR and all the cultures revealed constant DM.

Conclusion: Euglena photoautotrophic cultures can tolerate low light intensities. With the SGR and RGR behavior under the shade conditions, they can maintain the constant photosynthesis rate and constant dry matter level.

Open Access Original Research Article

Adoption Behaviour of the Rural Farming Household in South West Nigeria: A Panacea for Agricultural Promotion Policy (APP)

Aturamu Oluyede Adeleke

Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry, Page 60-66
DOI: 10.9734/ajraf/2021/v7i430139

The study examined the adoption behaviour of the rural farming household in South-West Nigeria. A cross-sectional sample survey of 200 farmers were randomly chosen for the study. Descriptive statistics and Tobit regression were used to calculate the probability of adoption. The study showed the magnitude of change in the level of adoption of agroforestry-based technologies by performing simulated analysis on some identified variables that could influence government policies. The simulation is done with an increase in the values of the variables by 5%, 10% and 20%. The results of this simulation of policy variables revealed that adoption will decrease with increase in age and credit facility. Also, any policy that will improve the quality and/or coverage of extension education is likely to increase adoption of agroforestry-based technologies. Landowners are likely to adopt agroforestry based technologies than tenants. Any policy that provides land to prospective farmers is likely to increase adoption of agroforestry-based technologies. Some of the general conclusion which have emerged from this investigation are that: Only availability of credit to farmers has significant effect on adoption of agroforestry-based technology at 0.05 level. However, at 0.10 level of significance, distance of input source from farm, membership of cooperative society and farmers’ educational status are significant in explaining adoption decision of farmers in the area. It is therefore recommended that there is need for provision of regular and better extension services to keep farmers abreast of the latest agroforestry-based technologies.

Open Access Original Research Article

Diversity of Tree Species in Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

P. C. Nnadi, B. B. Otene, Nwiisator David-Sarogoro

Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry, Page 67-72
DOI: 10.9734/ajraf/2021/v7i430140

This study was carried out to examine the distribution of plant species in Rivers State University campus at different locations at the Rivers State University Nkpolu-Oroworukwo Port Harcourt Nigeria. The general objective of this study was to examine the Ecological distribution of plant species in Rivers State University campus at different locations. The specific objective was to determine the species abundance of various plants in the study area and also to examine the ecological diversity of tree species in the various groups. The study area was divided into three groups (stations) with the various plants species identified and recorded. Data gotten from the field was analyzed using descriptive statistic and some ecological indices such as Margalef, Mehinick, Shannon diversity, Shannon Wiener, Evenness/Equitability and Simpson dominance.  A total of one thousand Sixty-nine (1069) individual plant were identified with 16, 17 and 12 species in stations 1-3 respectively. The highest individual plants (561) were observed in station 1 while the least (87) were observed in station 3. The mean values of stations 1 and 2 were significantly and statistically different from site 3 at p<0.05. The results obtained showed some dominant species to include Elaeis guincensis, Polyaithia longifolia, Pinus spp, Gmelina arborea, Wodyetia bifareata, Citrus sinensis, Cocos nuciferia while others were the least dominant species found in the study area. The Margalef, Mehinicks and Shannon Wiener values were consistently highest in station 2 but lowest in station 3.  Human disturbances had negative impact on tree species abundance especially in site 3. It is therefore recommended that management interventions are necessary in other to stop indiscriminate felling of the various trees species that made up the different groups.

Open Access Original Research Article

Germination of Balsa Seedlings (Ochroma lagopus Swartz) under Different Sowing Media in East New Britain, Papua New Guinea

Boas Malagat, Kari Iamba

Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry, Page 73-88
DOI: 10.9734/ajraf/2021/v7i430141

A good sowing media ensures better anchorage of plants, provides a reservoir of  nutrients and water, and enhance gaseous exchange with the atmosphere. Balsa (Ochroma lagopus Swartz); Vimmy variety, has proven its versatility in producing some of the best phenotypic characteristics such as higher jorquette height, less branching and high log volumes. This experiment was carried out using a combination of three different local materials; local garden soil, pumice soil and sawdust but in different combination ratios aimed to investigate the best combinations. Six treatments were tested: T1= Pure Garden soil, T2= Pumice, T3= Control (75% large coarse sawdust, 25% pure garden soil), T4= Pure Sawdust, T5= 50% medium coarse sawdust, 50% pure soil, and, T6= 33% medium coarse sawdust, 33% Pumice, 33% Pure garden Soil. The daily average germination count in Treatment 5 (50% medium coarse sawdust & 50% pure soil) produced constant germinations from day fifteen (15) to day twenty one (21). Treatments 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 showed high variations in their daily average germination for the same period but did not produce a constant supply of germinations. Treatment 5 had the highest emergence rate index (ERI=71.76) followed by treatment 1 (ERI=66.59).  Treatment 4 had the third highest seedling emergence (ERI=63.74) followed by treatment 3 (ERI=59.37), treatment 6 (ERI=57.22) and treatment 2 (ERI=53.81) at the lowest continuum. Substrates containing 50% soil and 50% medium coarse sawdust are regarded as better sowing media for O. lagopus seedlings.